Salad Days

“Salad days” is a Shakespearean idiomatic expression meaning a youthful time, accompanied by the inexperience, enthusiasm, idealism, innocence, or indiscretion that one associates with a young person. A more modern use, especially in the United States, refers to a heyday, a period when somebody was at the peak of their abilities—not necessarily in that person’s youth.” -Wikipedia

Long before contemporary diet wars, a fellow named Maximilian De Loup wrote “The American Salad Book,” a classic described as “The most complete and useful collection of salad recipes ever brought together.”

Back in 1899, in the salad heydays, there were no diet wars, no “Paleo” “Vegan” “Keto” or “Vegetarian” fanatics shouting at each other on Twitter. (Cool to be any one of these, not so cool to be shouting at each other on Twitter!)

Folks ate food, including plants, animals, and seafood. Nobody was casting aspersions on each other’s diets – people just ate real food, and there were plenty of salads on the menu. Salad was a demilitarized zone!

“To learn to serve a salad is a most important qualification for one would master the art of entertaining.” 

The “proficient salad mixer” was extolled to not attempt too much at first: practice on plain salads and dressings before elaborating them: study the tastes of your guests as well as the mixing of condiments.” Here, we see a salad ethic that abhors the idea of inflicting your dietary experiments or proclivities on others… to the contrary, try to understand and appease the preferences of your guests.

In this new (old) series, we will mine the glorious text of “The American Salad Book,” a delightful treasure of bygone salad days and rejoice in a diversity of salads that ought to make all the diet tribes happy. 

EatRx does not adhere to any particular dietary dogma or approach, other than always emphasizing “real food”. 

Let’s start with “Salad Dressings and Sauces”

Much has been written by salad masters on the importance of giving the utmost care and attention to the dressing of salads, for on this depends the success of the whole. The kind of dressings are numerous, almost innumerable, but the really good ones are indeed few. The French or plain dressing and the mayonnaise are in almost universal use throughout the civilized world and, with slight variations, are more generally approved than any other kind. Indeed, were they always to be had, directions for others would be nearly superfluous, but often good materials cannot be obtained and although good judges insist upon a liberal quantity of oil being used there are many people who will eat nothing which olive oil enters. It is said that a true salad artist never measures anything so nicely does he adapt the seasoning to the conditions and to the requirements of his guests. This is all very well where we have knowledge and experience, but with new things and new people a guide is necessary. In all directions given in this book, such quantities and proportions are used as experience has shown meet the average taste: however, nothing is absolute for the strength of the several condiments vary greatly, and, of course, a salad of salty materials will require less of that condiment in the dressing, and one of peppergrass, or other strong herbs, less pepper.

Much has been written about mayonnaise and we are told that properly it includes the whole preparation, meat, herbs, and dressing, but the term as used in the United States has been so long and universally applied to dressing alone that it would be misleading to attempt a change. Still, it should be understood, when other things than egg, oil, vinegar or lemon juice, salt, pepper, and mustard are added it is not a mayonnaise dressing but should be given another name. A perfect mayonnaise is a triumph of art: with good materials it is easily made but when the materials are poor, the dressing is, to put it mildly, indifferent.

The process of dropping oil from a bottle, as we get in this country, may be facilitated by cutting two grooves in the cork on opposite sides, one for the oil to run out of and the other to admit the air.

It is held by many salad makers that a small quantity of sugar, often little more than a “pinch,” should be added to all salad dressings for the purpose of bringing together the other seasonings in a more perfect affinity. It will do no harm if enough is not put in to give the dressing a sweet taste, but the moments this occurs the salad is spoiled, unless a sweet salad is wanted.

“Chapon,” for Green Salads. Cut from a loaf of bread a thin crust about one inch by two, sprinkle it with salt and rub with a clove of garlic crushed: toss the bread into the bottom of the salad bowl, before the salad is put in, and let remain in the salad during the process of mixing: remove before serving the salad.


Have all the materials ready, clean and cold, when about to begin. Do the mixing in a cool place and if the weather is hot set the bowl on ice before or during the mixing. A shallow bowl or soup plate is most convenient for beating. Use a silver or wooden fork or smooth wooden spoon. Have the yolks of two fresh raw eggs and two hard boiled ones in a cool bowl, drop on a little oil and rub to a cream: then add a teaspoonful of made English mustard (made by mixing ground mustard with warm water) two teaspoonfuls of dry fine salt and a sprinkle of Cayenne pepper: then drop in oil, drop by drop, stirring and beating hard all the time until the mixture is thick and solid enough to keep its shape and have a glassy look. It will require from eight tablespoonfuls to half a pint of oil, according to size of eggs and quality of materials. Thin the mixture by dropping in vinegar until the dressing is of proper consistency: about two tablespoonfuls  of vinegar will be required. A few drops of lemon juice may be added but avoid using too much or it will give the dressing an acidity very unpleasant. Keep the dressing in a cold place until wanted. Just before using, the whites of the raw eggs are usually beaten to a stiff froth and then beaten into the dressing. If, when partly made, it “breaks” or curdles, put in a cool place and when ready begin over again with more egg and instead of using oil drop the curdled dressing into the bowl until it is used. This dressing is always acceptable for any of the numerous green, meat or fish salads where mayonnaise is wanted, but is subject to countless variations according to taste or fancy. When more eggs are used less oil is required, and vice versa. If a very mild dressing should be wanted, omit the mustard and pepper. This is the kind usually preferred for fresh fruit salads. For fruit salads a spoonful of fine sugar can be substituted for the mustard. For sweet fruit it can be made more acid and for acid fruit less so. Cream, if thick and fresh, can sometimes be used to advantage with less oil, especially for fruit and fresh vegetables. Keep in a separate dish and do not mix with other things until just before eating. The process of mixing should take from ten to fifteen minutes. When wanted to coat meats or fish use aspic jelly in place of raw eggs, warming it sufficient to melt and then putting the coated dish in an ice chest This is sometimes called a “jelly mayonnaise.”

White Mayonnaise is made by using less egg yolk and more lemon juice in place of vinegar, the acid of the lemon always tending to whiten the eggs. The addition of the beaten white of egg and cream also tend to make it white. If a golden yellow color is wished all these ingredients should be omitted.

Green Mayonnaise is prepared by using a little spinach juice in plain mayonnaise, or the juice of any fresh salad herbs, tarragon, bumet, or chives may be used if desired. The prepared colorings that may be bought of grocers are cheap and convenient and should not be harmful. Very soft mashed green peas are used to give color and consistency when the dressing is used to cover fish.

Red Mayonnaise is made by adding some of the prepared coloring, cooked beet juice or highly colored fruit juice to plain mayonnaise. For fish salads, pound the coral of lobster, mix with a little oil and when smooth add to the mayonnaise.

Horseradish Mayonnaise is made by adding about three tablespoonfuls of fresh grated horseradish to the given amount of plain mayonnaise, or, if prepared horseradish is used, take the same amount and use the vinegar in which it is packed instead of plain vinegar. This is a good relish on cold beef and fish salads.

English Salad Sauce, so called, is mayonnaise with eggs in the proportion of two hard boiled to one raw yolk, and about two-thirds as much thick sweet cream as oil, the whole being well beaten together for twenty minutes or more and then cooled in the ice chest.

Mayonnaise Tartare is simply the addition of a little chopped onions or of onion juice, chopped cucumber pickles or capers and parsley, chives, chopped olives or any green herb the flavor of which is desired.


The following sauces are, without exception, easily made and of such variety that it is possible to have a desirable change with nearly every salad made. The variety will be most welcome to those whose sole dependence has been the French and Mayonnaise dressings.

Remoulade Sauce is made the same as mayonnaise sauce without the raw eggs, the yolks of hard boiled eggs alone being used. This is designed for the convenience of those to whom raw Eggs are objectionable.

Vinaigrette Sauce. Mix together one tablespoonful of vinegar, three of oil, one teaspoonful each of chopped parsley, capers and scraped or grated onion. Season with one salt spoonful of salt and pepper or a few drops of Tabasco sauce.

Vinaigrette Sauce with Egg  Mash the yolk of a hard boiled egg with three tablespoonfuls of oil, two of vinegar, a finely chopped shallot, one teaspoonful of chopped chives or half a teaspoonful of onion juice, as preferred, a salt- spoonful of salt and half as much pepper, Cayenne pepper preferred.

Bacon Sauce  Made by frying thin slices of smoked bacon or ham fat and after straining, add one-third vinegar to two-thirds bacon oil. It may be thickened by adding a little flour mixed with cold water and then cooking. This is greatly relished on green salads, by many people, and is often available in camp or other places where olive oil is not to be had.

Boiled Salad Dressing This is best made with a double boiler, or bain marie or in a small kettle in a larger one of boiling water. The yolks and whites of three eggs are beaten separately and stirred in the boiler with one cup of cream or rich milk, one-quarter teacup of vinegar, one teaspoonful each of mustard and pepper. Cook slowly and when thick stir in two teaspoonfuls of salt If too thick, thin with more cream, melted butter or oil. Butter or oil can be used instead of cream using more milk to keep it from being too hard. Add a good teaspoonful of sugar if it is relished. Stir constantly when boiling and when cooling to make it smooth.

Boiled Salad Dressing No. 2  Yolks of eight eggs, one cup of cream, (if milk is used put in a little butter) one pint of vinegar, one teaspoonful of sugar. Put in a double boiler or bowl in boiling water and cook to a cream but not until it is solid. Take from the fire and add one tablespoonful of salt, one of black pepper and one of mustard, well mixed and rubbed together with oil until all the lumps are dissolved. More oil may be added to thin the dressing if the taste is desired.

Sour Cream Salad Dressing  To a cupful of thick cream, sour but not too old, add a teaspoonful of salt, the juice of half a lemon, two teaspoonfuls of vinegar, a good sprinkling of Cayenne, or if a mild pepper is preferred use paprika in larger quantities, and a teaspoonful of sugar. Beat all together thoroughly. This is relished on salads of cold boiled vegetables and on tomatoes.

Albert Dressing  Four tablespoonfuls of oil are well mixed with one each of wine and vinegar. A teaspoonful of salt and a little paprika or other mild red pepper is added.

Tomato Dressing  Put in a frying pan two tablespoonfuls of butter, an onion of medium size sliced thin, and a small green pepper of the strong variety: a little Cayenne may be used if the green pepper is not available. Fry until highly colored, add about two cupfuls of tomatoes, cook and stir until the tomatoes are reduced to a pulp. Strain the mixture, return to the frying pan and thicken with an even teaspoonful of flour stirred in cold water. Let it cook slowly for nearly half an hour, seasoning with salt and a little clove or any other spice preferred. If too thick, thin with a little oil or hot water. To be eaten on any green salad with cold meats.

Sardine Dressing  Take two sardines free from bones and skin, mash fine with one raw egg, one tablespoonful of oil, two of vinegar, one teaspoonful of made mustard, one of salt and one-quarter teaspoonful of pepper. Stir well together and add a small quantity of chopped parsley. Serve with fish salads or meat.

Bast Indian Salad Dressing  The yolks of two hard boiled eggs rubbed smooth with eight tablespoonfuls of oil, a teaspoonful of curry powder and two tablespoonful of Tarragon vinegar.

Salmi Sauce  Take half a carrot of medium size and cut into small pieces: half an onion, two bay leaves, a sprig of thyme and six whole peppercorns. Put these into a sauce pan with an ounce of butter and cook briskly for about five minutes or until all are of a golden yellow color. Chop the trimmings from the bird used and add to contents of the saucepan, together with half a wine glass of sherry, half a cupful of mushroom liquor, the juice of one lemon, a saltspoonful of salt, half as much pepper and a little nutmeg. Let all cook together for twenty minutes and then strain for use.

Alii|ond Salad Dressing  For ripe peaches, sliced bananas, pears, fresh figs or any kind of ripe fruit the following dressing will be found most excellent. To every dozen sweet almonds allow four bitter ones. Blanch and remove the brown skins, then soak them in cold water for two hours and pound in a marble or a porcelain lined mortar, adding a little salt, a slight sprinkling of Cayenne pepper and a little lemon juice. When all are ground fine, thin with sherry wine to the consistency of cream. Just before using cold fresh cream can be stirred into it. If the fresh cream makes it too rich it may be omitted without detriment.

Lemon Dressing  This is a most healthful and refreshing dressing to serve on lettuce or any green salad, and is frequently more relished by children and convalescents than any other dressing. Squeeze the juice from a lemon and add as much cold water as juice, half a saltspoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of fine sugar.

Hollandaise Sauce Especially good to use with fish salads when good oil is difficult to obtain. Rub half a cup of butter to a cream and add, slowly, the yolks of two eggs. Also add a saltspoonful of salt, a sprinkle of Cayenne pepper and the juice of one lemon. Pour in a half a cupful of boiling water and stand the bowl in a pan of boiling water or in the top of a tea kettle and stir until thick as cream.

Bearnaise Sauce  Beat the yolks of four eggs and add four tablespoonfuls of oil, one of hot water and one of vinegar. Tarragon or plain: one teaspoonful of salt and a sprinkling of Cayenne pepper. Boil in a double boiler or on a ketde until thick, adding the vinegar last It should be like firm mayonnaise. By adding chopped pickles, capers, or olives with a few drops of Tabasco sauce a good sauce Tartare can be made.

Mexican Salad Dressing  Crush fine in a stone or porcelain lined mortar a clove of garlic the size of a small pea and two small strong green peppers that have been boiled or roasted: add also three tomatoes of medium size that have been boiled and peeled. Grind all together thoroughly and pour over lettuce or cold boiled potatoes that have been dressed with salt, oil and vinegar.

Italian Salad Dressing Rub an anchovy quite smooth with a tablespoonful of oil and a teaspoonful of made mustard. Add three or four more tablespoonfuls of oil, one of garlic vinegar, and one of common vinegar. Stir until creamy and serve in a dish separate from the salad.

Salad Dressing with Cheese  Rub four tablespoonfuls of oil into the yolks of two hard boiled eggs, then add a teaspoonful of grated Parmesan cheese, one of made mustard, one of Tarragon vinegar and a tablespoonful of cider vinegar. A spoonful of mushroom, walnut or other catsup can be added if the flavor is desired.

Ravigote Butter  Chop very fine, or pound in a mortar, equal parts of Tarragon, parsley and chervil seasoned with a sprinkle of salt and pepper. Rub one tablespoonful of these mixed herbs into one-quarter pound of fresh butter and then put on ice to set When ready to use cut with slightly warmed cutter into pretty. shapes for garnishing.

Ravigote Sauce Put the yolks of two raw eggs and one ounce of butter into a small sauce pan or hain marie and place over the fire where it is not too hot and stir until it begins to thicken: add an ounce more of butter and stir again until it makes a cream. Then add pounded herbs, of chives use half a teaspoonful or a teaspoonful each of burnet, chervil, tarragon, parsley and others to suit the taste. Celery, bay leaves, capers, mustard, cresses and anchovies are sometimes added. It is made without cooking by using the yolk of one raw egg, and oil instead of butter: beat to a cream and add finely minced or powdered herbs.

Cucumber Jelly  Peel and cut off the green ends of four large or five small cucumbers, cut into slices and stew in a quart of water with a small slice of onion, a little pepper and a small teaspoonful of salt When the cucumbers become soft, stir in half a box of gelatine that has been previously soaked in a cupful of water. Stir until the gelatin is dissolved and then strain through a fine sieve or strainer and put in moulds to harden. This is good with any fish salad, especially salmon. The fish can be flaked, put in the mould and hardened with the jelly. If served by itself sliced cucumbers are good in it It can be moulded in small egg cups or in individual moulds as preferred. This jelly is never more attractive than when surrounding a mound of pink salmon on a bed of fresh lettuce, the jelly broken and sparkling. French dressing should be used with it. Serve as cold as possible.

Tomato Jelly One quart of tomatoes, one small onion sliced, a few sprigs of parsley, three or four cloves, salt and a sprinkling of Cayenne, or a small hot pepper from the garden, are used in making this jelly. Stew the mixture until the tomatoes are soft, strain and add half a box of gelatine that has been soaked in a cup of water. There should be a little more than a pint of the liquid. Use as a garnish for meat or green salads. A large mould of the jelly on a bed of lettuce surrounded by mayonnaise is very attractive. Individual moulds on separate plates are convenient to serve with a large company. Use mayonnaise dressing with this jelly. 

Mariarinade When meat or fish is dry and tasteless it is improved by putting in a marinade or sauce to stand for a time, one or two hours usually being sufficient A plain marinade is made by using one part oil to three parts vinegar, with pepper and salt to taste. Other flavors, sweet herbs, spices, etc., can be given by bruising in a little oil and letting them stand before mixing with the rest The use of marinade is usually carried to excess, the quantity of vinegar poured on destroying all other flavors. Use only enough to season the meat and only what will be absorbed by the meat

Cutting Meats for Salads Meat of all kinds for use in salads should be cut into uniform small slices or cubes as far as possible. If cut into pieces do not have them too small : a half inch is about right If smaller, or if chopped it stiggest hash, becomes wet and soggy with the dressing and is always unpleasant to the taste. When meat or fish of different kinds are put in the same salad, however, they need not be cut in equal sizes.

French or Plain Salad Dressing Take three tablespoonfuls of sweet oil, one of vinegary one saltspoonful of salt, one-half saltspoonful of pepper, and one-quarter of a teaspoonful of onion juice. Mix well and quickly and throw over the salad. This is the most popular of all salad dressings and the proportions are those generally approved, but are, of course, subject to many variations some of which follow.

Variations  When onion flavor is objectionable it can be omitted but it gives a zest no other condiment affords. It should be used only in small quantities, never enough in a dressing to overpower the other seasonings. Those who are exceedingly fond of it should have onion salads, than which none are more healthful and invigorating. When introduced judiciously into a salad, onions are usually relished even by the most strenuous objectors to the vegetable who will not notice it in the salad when perfectly blended with the other ingredients and without strong odor. A few drops of juice, squeezed out with a porcelain lined lemon squeezer and mixed with the oil is the preferred way of introducing it, but if the onion juice cannot be readily used, scrape a little of the raw onion and mix with a part of the oil, let it stand for fifteen minutes or longer then press the oil out and mix with the dressing.

When garlic is used, rub a crushed clove of it on the bottom of the bowl in which the dressing is mixed, or, if mixed in the French manner by working the oil over the lettuce first, rub the garlic on a small piece of stale bread, called in France the “chapon, ” and toss it about in the bowl with the salad, rubbing some salt over it after the garlic is used.

When the slight flavor of strong herbs is relished in a salad, a small quantity of them can be crushed in a stone or porcelain mortar and then macerated or soaked in a little oil, which may be pressed out with a thin spoon and added to the dressing. Summer savory or thyme can thus be used in a plain salad to accompany roasted or broiled poultry. Sweet marjoram or sage is used with green geese or ducks, mint with lamb or venison and sweet basil with fish or clams. Orange flowers, or the tender buds and leaves, may be used. Basil, bumet, caraway, balm, chervil or any other herbs may be used in place of those mentioned, taste being the guide in all cases.

English Salad Dressing is made by the addition of a teaspoonful of made mustard to the given quantity of French dressing. 


Fish Salads

ALMOST any kind of cold cooked fish can be acceptably served as a salad, that which is boiled being generally preferred. If a small quantity of vinegar is added to the water in which the fish is boiled, it will make the flesh firm yet tender. 

Fish salads require the addition of fresh acids, lemon juice being the most grateful addition to the fish that is at all insipid as are some of the freshwater kinds. Stewed gooseberries are much liked as a dressing or accompaniment by many and may be properly used with any cooked fish. Chervil vinegar or a few leaves of fresh chervil impart a delightful relish. Fennel is also good for the same purpose. 

Remove most carefully all scales, bones or skin that may remain on the fish before mixing a salad, but do not divide the flesh in too small pieces. In the case of a large fish the salad looks best and is most appetizing when the natural ” flakes ‘* are simply separated, without being broken, and lightly mixed in the salad. 

Cucumber salad is the best accompaniment to fresh salmon, with plain dressing : or cucumber jelly may be used by way of variety. A boiled fish served whole as a salad is best for suppers or collations, but in warm weather it makes a good fish course for dinner when more or less elaborately decorated. 

Cold chicory salad is delightful with deviled crabs or lobsters. 

Herring Salad  Take fresh herring of large size and boil until tender. Remove the skin and bones and cut the fish diagonally in halves. Pour over it a dressing made as follows. For three pounds of fish take one pint of vinegar, two teaspoonfuls of whole pepper, two of allspice and three whole cloves. Mix the vinegar, allspice, cloves and two bay leaves together and heat slowly, but do not boil, for twenty minutes. When entirely cold mix with the salad. Between each layer of fish lay two bay leaves and two or three slices of red onion. Salt to taste. Garnish with small pickles and slices of red beets. Small thin slices of buttered brown bread should be served with this salad. 

English Herring Salad  Soak four large, or six medium sized salted herring in cold water to draw out the salt, then pick the meat from the bones, divide into small pieces, and mix with an equal quantity of cold meat using veal, mutton or beef as preferred: then add three hard boiled eggs, two large boiled potatoes and two apples all cut into small pieces. Cucumbers and beets may also be added if desired. Stir together a quarter of a teacupful of rich cream, half as much vinegar and a little sugar and pepper and mix with the other things. Place the mixture in the centre of a platter and surround with a sauce of cream, vinegar, mustard and sugar, or with oil, vinegar and pepper. Chop a hard boiled egg and sprinkle the particles over the salad. 

Herring Salad with Potatoes  Wash four salt herring and soak in milk for several hours, then drain, remove the fillets from the sides and cut into small pieces. Cut eight ounces of cold boiled potatoes, four ounces of tart apples, four ounces of pickled beets, (the roots) and four ounces of pickled cucumbers into pieces about a quarter of an inch square. Then mince very fine half a pound of roast veal and mix with the other things in a salad bowl, seasoning with salt and vinegar, pepper, mustard and chopped chives. Sprinkle chopped parsley over the top and decorate with anchovies, pickles and hard boiled eggs. Use a little more dressing or hot water if not sufficiently moist. 

Dutch Herring Salad  This is said to be the true Holland herring salad but by the addition of other fruits and vegetables if becomes an Italian or a Russian salad. Four large, or five small Holland herring are soaked in milk or water for three hours, and then cut into small square pieces after all the skin and bones are carefully picked out. Cut two quarts of hot boiled potatoes into slices, pour over them enough Rhine wine to moisten them and keep in a close covered dish until cold. Chop the yolks of four hard boiled eggs and mix with the potatoes and fish. Season with coarse black pepper freshly ground. If the fish are with roe, soak in vinegar or Rhine wine a few minutes, then separate the roe and sprinkle them over the salad. If milt herring, pound the milt to a paste, thin with wine or vinegar and pour over the rest. 

Fresh Herring Salad  Clean and remove the heads from two fresh herring, split in two and sprinkle with salt and lemon juice, and let them stand for three hours. Dry and broil, rubbing a little butter over them. Remove bones, skin, etc., and divide into small pieces. Pick the leaves from a small handful of cress and put in a salad bowl with the herring, adding two or three cold potatoes cut into slices. Pour over all a plain salad dressing, sprinkle with capers, mix and serve. 

Smoked Herring Salad  Carefully separate the meat from two good sized American smoked herring and divide into small pieces. Mix in a salad bowl with one head of lettuce and a plain dressing with some hard boiled eggs. If preferred mix with a remoulade sauce. 

Herring Salad, Italian Style The meat of two salt herring is soaked in milk or water for three hours and then cut up fine. To half a pound of roast veal and a quarter of a pound of Bologna sausage add three tart apples, three cold boiled potatoes, sliced, and four or five small pickled beets with a small quantity of some other desired pickle, minced fine. Make a dressing of the milt of herring nibbed to a paste, with six tablespoonfuls of sweet oil: add half a teaspoonful of white or black pepper, a teaspoonful of French or German mustard, three of vinegar (tarragon). Mix thoroughly and pour over the salad. This salad is improved, in the estimation of many people, by standing in a cold place for two hours before serving. 

Frog Salad  This is one of the most delicate and delicious of all salads. Clean and skin the frogs and soak in salted water about an hour. If large frogs can be had, the greater part of the body can be used, but of the small frogs, called in the market Canadian frogs, the legs only are worth troubling with. Boil slowly until quite tender: drain off the water, cover with milk and let this come to a boil being careful that the milk does not bum. Drain again and cool, separate the meat from the bones and salt a little if too fresh. Then mix in a salad bowl with about the same quantity of young lettuce, or if lettuce is not obtainable celery may be used. A few leaves of watercress may be added, or a little minced parsley, or sweet basil but do not add enough strong herbs or seasoning to destroy the delicacy of the meat. Serve with a mild mayonnaise or French dressing. Hard boiled eggs for garnishing will increase the quantity of a small salad, or cray-fish may be used for this purpose where they are obtainable. 

Mackerel Salad No. 1  This is made the same a Herring Salad using mackerel instead of herring. 

Mackerel Salad No. 2  Boil fresh mackerel slowly for about twenty-five minutes or half an hour, drain, cool and pick all the good meat from the bones, skin and separate it into small pieces but do not chop or hash it. Put it in a salad bowl with heart leaves of lettuce, one large head or two small ones to each fish. Salt the water the fish was boiled in, or sprinkle a little fine salt over the prepared fish. Serve with remoulade sauce or French dressing. Tiny clams, hard boiled eggs, spiced mussels, or shrimp are good for garnishing. 

Mackerel Salad No. 3  Salt or pickled mackerel make a salad very relishing in early spring when other materials are scarce. Boil the fish and pick over carefully: mix cold boiled potatoes and fresh cress with the fish in the proportion of two-thirds of the fish to one-third of both vegetables, and serve with French dressing. Celery and potatoes are also good with this fish. 

Salad of Shad Roe  Separate the grains of a shad roe boiled in salted water, by washing in vinegar. Place in a salad bowl with the leaves of one head of lettuce and one pint of tomatoes peeled and cut small. Dress with three tablespoonfuls of oil, and two of lemon juice with salt and Cayenne pepper or Tabasco sauce to taste. The large roe of any fish is excellent treated in the same manner. Another way is to boil the roe in salted water with a sliced onion, a bay leaf or any herb fancied, for about twenty-five minutes. Then remove and drop into iced water. When perfectly cold, drain and cut into small slices. Sprinkle with salt, pepper and a little lemon juice and put on ice until wanted. When ready to serve mix with leaves of watercress and place on lettuce. Serve with boiled, mayonnaise or French dressing. 

Salmon Salad (American)  Cold boiled salmon is usually served whole in this country covered with firm mayonnaise often elaborately colored and ornamented. Many caterers pride themselves on their skill in serving it Being a fish that stands freezing, and transportation on ice with less loss of flavor than most kinds, it is available in most parts of the country. Boil the fish in salted water in which half a cup of good vinegar has been poured, if the fish is a large one : a less quantity of vinegar will do for a small fish. Boil for half an hour if a small fish, longer if large, allowing ten to twelve minutes for each pound of fish after boiling begins: better boil too long than to have the fish underdone. A bunch of sweet herbs sometimes called a “bouquet” can be boiled with the fish, the bouquet being composed of thyme, celery leaves, parsley, bay leaves, basil, etc. Small sliced onions and cloves will give the herbs additional flavor and be relished by many, but care should be taken not to season the fish so highly as to destroy the natural flavor and delicacy so pronounced in a good fish. A piece of clean muslin or mosquito netting wrapped around the fish and tied will prevent its boiling to pieces. If wanted whole, place on a long platter, or board, covered with a napkin, after removing the fins, skin and small bones. Place on ice and when cold cover with a stiff mayonnaise colored and decorated as may be fancied. If broken or part of a fish, divide into flakes or small pieces, do not mince, and arrange in a small salad bowl with good lettuce and serve with mayonnaise dressing. Decorate by placing a few of the pinkest and best formed flakes on top. When canned salmon has to be served this method of preparation is the best Serve a plain dressing if preferred. Celery is sometimes used instead of lettuce but is not so good. A few watercresses are good to serve with fresh salmon. 

Salmon Salad (English)  After being carefully cleaned and scalded, boil the fish in a stew pan with thin slices of onions, carrots and mushrooms, a bunch of sweet herbs, salt, pepper, spice and a glass of white wine. Cut the fish into slices as thin as a silver half dollar and set them around the dish. Garnish with hearts of lettuce, hard boiled eggs, slices of boiled carrots, gherkins, anchovies and capers. Make a cold ravigote sauce and pour over the whole. 

Broiled Salmon Salad is made by broiling the fish in steaks instead of boiling : in this way it takes less time to prepare the fish and is more convenient. Broil the fish and when well done remove the bones and skin, break the fish into flakes and put in a dish with salt, pepper, vinegar or lime juice sprinkled over it, using only a very little oil as the £sh is naturally rich and oily. Let it stand for about an hour and then dress in a salad bowl with lettuce and mayonnaise dressing. If lettuce is not to be had, cold boiled potatoes may be used instead, and a few cresses will be a welcome addition. Hard boiled eggs and chopped cucumber pickles or capers are relished with this salad. 

Salmon and Cucumbers make a good salad served with French dressing both to be fresh and cold. 

Salmon and Asparagus Salad  Arrange cold boiled asparagus that is tender on a large platter or flat dish, with the tips outward if possible. Season with a French dressing or sprinkle with oil, vinegar, salt and pepper if more convenient Pile the flaked salmon in the centre of the platter or dish sprinkling with a little lemon juice if the fish is too dry. Put in an ice chest until perfectly cold and, just before serving, pour mayonnaise dressing over the fish. 

Salmon and Green Pea Salad is made the same as asparagus salad using green peas with the salmon. 

Russian Salmon Salad  What is called salmon salad a la Basse is made by decorating a mound with tails of crayfish, hard boiled eggs, truffles, oysters, etc., as well as cold boiled vegetables cut into fancy shapes, dipped into strong aspic jelly to hold them in place and then filling the mound with cold boiled salmon and a clear, highly flavored aspic jelly, cucumber jelly being the favorite. When hard and cold, turn out of the mound and serve in a platter with mayonnaise dressing poured around it. 

French Fish Salad  A favorite way with our Gallic friends is to cut nice slices from cold boiled fish, three or four inches long and place them on plates of lettuce: over that is poured a heaping tablespoonful of mayonnaise dressing in which sardines ground and mashed have been stirred, or a sardine boned and freed from skin is laid on the slice of fish before the dressing is put on. Minced parsley, chervil, basil, fennel or any salad herb preferred can be sprinkled over the top. The sardine flavor is an addition when the fish is flat or weak in flavor but with salmon, horse mackerel or any rich, highly flavored fish had better be omitted. 

Spanish Fish Salad  Arrange on individual plates, or in a salad dish, boiled fish on lettuce, then a layer of sweet pepper shredded as fine as possible, hard boiled eggs and olives sliced. Serve with French dressing made with onion juice, or if made in a salad bowl, the bowl can be rubbed with garlic. 

Anchovy Salad  The bottled anchovies are the best to use if they are obtainable. If salted anchovies are to be used soak them in cold water for about two hours or until they are well freshened, they drain and dry them and remove the skin, bones etc., dividing the meat into small pieces and squeezing the juice of a lemon over it. Mix with lettuce or celery cut into rather small pieces. Hard boiled eggs should be cut up and mixed with lettuce and fish, nearly as much egg as fish. Cold boiled potatoes, string beans, sliced raw onions and other vegetables are often added. Serve with French dressing made with onion juice or tartare sauce. Six to eight salt anchovies are enough for an ordinary salad but if small or bottled ones are used more are required. 

Sardine Salad  Sardine, salad can be made with either lettuce or celery with a sprinkling of any other fine herb that will be relished for flavoring. To one small box of sardines, two good stalks of celery or an equal quantity of lettuce is about the right proportion. If the oil in which the sardines is packed is poor, drain it carefully off and scrape away with the skin and bones of the fish, but if the oil is of good quality most people like a little of it mixed with the salad. Use mayonnaise or French dressing. If mayonnaise is used the salad looks well served in a flat glass dish or platter. Like all fish salads it harmonizes well with hard boiled eggs but all fish salads should not be garnished alike. 

Salt Codfish Salad  Take about half of an ordinary sized salt codfish and soak overnight in plenty of water. Dry and cut away the fins etc., rub with butter and broiL When cold pick out the meat and divide into quarter inch pieces. Put in a bowl and cover with French dressing letting it stand an hour. Mix with crisp lettuce and serve with mayonnaise or French dressing. Salt salmon may be used in the same way. Another method of preparing is to broil the fish as directed and put in a bowl finely divided with a little more than the same quantity of hot potatoes sliced: pour over it a claret glass of Rhine wine, cover and allow it to cool. When ready to serve add a few endive leaves. Dress with a French dressing and serve. Boiled codfish may be used in the same way but is not so good. Still another way is to soak the fish to remove the salt and then, for a family salad, pick about a cupful into fine shreds. Cut an onion into a pan with a tablespoonful of butter and cook until browned. : then add the fish and cook very slowly for a few minutes. If too dry add enough water to keep it quite moist. Shredded green pepper can be added to the onion if liked. When cold arrange in a salad bowl with tomatoes, peeled and sliced, or lettuce, and dress with French dressing. 

Eel Salad is best made with endive. Pick the meat from cooked or potted eels and add to it an equal quantity of bleached endive. Serve with remoulade dressing. Garnish with lemon, pickled oysters, crabs, shrimp, etc. 

Whitebait Salad  The little fish that are sold as white bait are the fry of nearly all large fish according to the locality in which they are caught. Mackerel, shad, herring, smelt, black-fish, weak-fish are the most common. When wanted for salad, after being well washed and wiped, dredge them with flour and fry in a kettle of hot boiling fat. Drain, cool and serve with lettuce and mayonnaise dressing or tartare sauce. 

Sheepshead or “Scup” Salad  Either of these fish or those of similar character make good salads boiled with flavoring herbs or vinegar. When cold, remove the white meat, divide into flakes and mix with crisp lettuce and mayonnaise dressing. If preferred the meat may be given a marinade of Worcestershire sauce diluted with vinegar and then mixed with lettuce and remoulade dressing. Crab or lobster meat, shrimp, etc., are good for garnishing. 

Fisherman’s Salad  This is often acceptable on the water or in camp. Take the proportions of two pounds of cooked fish in clean meat, one of cold boiled potatoes and half a head of cold cabbage using, if possible, both the red and white cabbage. Finely chopped pickles or cucumbers added are good. Serve with any good dressing available. A liberal supply of pepper is usually relished when this salad is eaten in the open air. 

Halibut Salad is one of the best of fish salads. Have boiled halibut and add one half its bulk of lettuce or celery, or, to one quarter the quantity of halibut add one quarter boiled cauliflower or potatoes. Vinaigrette Sauce, Sardine dressing, Hollandaise sauce. Anchovy dressing or plain French dressing with or without onions are all good for use with this salad. 

Lake Trout Salad  The larger salmon or lake trout can be served in salads like salmon, or they can be boiled in water slightly salted to which a little vinegar or half the quantity of acid wine has been added. Herbs, sliced onions etc., can be added to the water but avoid destroying the flavor of the fish by over seasoning. iLiet the fish drain and cool, then pick the meat out carefully and mix with good lettuce, French or mayonnaise dressing. 

Brook Trout Salad  When this delightful fish is available for salad it is most excellent prepared in the following manner. Boil the fish in salted water to which a little vinegar or acid wine has been added and any flavoring herb desired, cool and drain: then split each fish down the back, being careful not to break the fish, remove all bones, but not the head, keeping the natural shape of the fish. When ready to serve, have, on separate plates, nicely arranged, lettuce carefully dressed with French dressing. 

Turbot Salad can be made the same as sole or flounder salad and is, perhaps, better than either. Any of the directions for boiled fish salads can be carried out with turbot 

Smelt Salad  The peculiar taste that smelt have at times is relished by some and disliked by others but nearly everyone likes the fish when made into salad. There are more elaborate salads in use than those here given but they are not adapted to American use. Boil a dozen smelt fifteen minutes, drain and cool, then remove the meat from all the bones and cut in half inch pieces. Arrange in a salad bowl with two crisp heads of lettuce and sprinkle with two salted anchovies, minced fine. Serve with mild mayonnaise or remoulade sauce. 

Salad of Smelts  An old English Recipe. Take fifty smelt of large size that have been cleaned, drawn and heads cut off and put them to soak in a pint of white wine vinegar, or sufficient to cover them when packed close. Put among them one onion and two sliced lemons, a race of ginger, three or four blades of mace, a nutmeg sliced or crushed, a dozen whole black peppers and a spoonful of salt Let them stand covered at least twenty-four hours: if desired to keep them for some days see that the vinegars not too strong for the taste, diluting, if necessary. When wanted for use remove from the pickle, scrape, split open and cut out all the bones. Arrange on a dish with open sides up and sprinkle with the grated yellow rind of orange or lemon and chopped parsley, fine pepper and lemon juice. Pour on a good quantity of salad oil and let them stand for some time to absorb all the oil they will.

Sole or Hounder Salad  Boil four or five pounds of the fish, a single large fish is best, and let it get quite cold then remove the white meat carefully from the skin and bones, divide it into flakes and cover with a marinade of French dressing, let it remain half an hour and then drain, When ready to serve mix with lettuce and remoulade sauce or put the fish on leaves of lettuce and pour a spoonful of dressing over it. Very small little neck clams, oyster crabs or shrimp are good for garnishing. 

Bloater Salad  Remove the skin and bones from two Yarmouth bloaters that have been boiled or broiled, and cut the meat into shreds. Mix in a salad bowl with two good sized boiled potatoes, sliced small, a head of bleached endive, minced capers and a few minced fresh herbs if they can be had. Chopped anchovies are sometimes added. French dressing is used with this salad. 

Tropical Pish Salad  Fish salad is made in South America and other warm climates by cleaning the fish, splitting it and then covering it with lemon or lime juice and letting it remain for twelve hours. The fish is cooked by the action of the acid, the bones and skin carefully taken out and the fish served with lettuce or shredded cabbage palm and a French or remoulade dressing. 

Shell Fish Salads

The various shellfish obtainable in almost all parts of this country, provide us with material for salad making which, to say the least, adds variety to the list of favorite salads. Shellfish salads are especially desirable in hot weather and they always acquire an additional flavor when the fish are caught by one’s self. Along the sea shore, in the various rivers running into the ocean, “crabbing” is one of the delightful occupations of summer visitors, which reaches its most complete enjoyment when the day’s catch is served in one of the several delicious ways. 


Salads made with lobsters are the most generally approved of all fish salads. They are among the easiest to make but alas! one of the most rare to find good, either on public or private tables. Too great elaboration and the use of too high seasoning are the common faults. Nothing can be finer than the natural relish and delicate flavoring of fresh lobster, and all our efforts should tend to preserve and accentuate instead of diminishing or obscuring its delicacy. 

Medium sized lobsters are to be preferred, for large ones are often tough while small ones have little meat and are generally soft and tasteless from too long boiling. Lobsters can always be bought fresh and well boiled at the fish markets and are usually better by being boiled in large numbers. If the lobsters are uncooked, boil from thirty to forty-five minutes as they are large or small, and when cold pick out the meat carefully from the shells rejecting the stomach and sand pouch as well as the intestines that run through the tail. 

If one is not familiar with the formation of the lobster it is best to get instruction from some experienced person in breaking the shell and extracting the meat. Take time in doing this work and be careful to save all the green fat, and scrape off that which adheres to the inside of the shells. The more delicate and highly flavored parts are usually thrown away in hotels and restaurants because it saves the servants time and avoids trouble: the consequent result is the abomination usually served as lobster salad. It is said that chefs are scarce who do not claim that they can make a better salad than anyone else but he who can make a better one than number one here given is a genius. 

Lobster Salad No. 1  Pick the meat carefully from the shells being careful that no small pieces of shell gets among it. Cut the large pieces up into half inch bits, but not smaller or the dish will have a heavy sodden look. Sprinkle lightly with fine salt and when ready to serve mix with a little more than its own bulk of crisp lettuce torn into convenient sized pieces. Pour over the whole a mayonnaise dressing made with mustard and into which the fat of the lobster has been beaten, Mix lightly just before serving so that each guest will get the proper proportion of both salad and dressing. 

Avoid elaborate garnishes. Put a few well-formed leaves of lettuce around the edges of the plates and sprinkle the coral or eggs of the lobster, broken into fine bits, over the top. Nothing can be more attractive than the scarlet and white of the fish with the green and cream of the lettuce. Let no one persuade you to put vinegar or anything but a little salt on the lobster meat If more acid is wanted sprinkle a little lemon juice or vinegar over the lettuce. 

The claws and parts of the shell are often used as an attractive garnish but they make it awkward in helping and mixing and are untidy on the table. Stoned olives, sliced beets, capers etc., are commonly added but should not be mixed with the salad. Let them be served on a separate dish if wanted, each guest helping himself. Hard boiled eggs harmonize in taste and can be used to increase the quantity of salad if necessary. Serve good bread and butter with this salad, and on no account let the salad stand long after the dressing is mixed with it. 

Lobster Salad No. 2  (a L’ Allemand) Pick out the meat of the lobster and arrange on a bed of lettuce or on individual plates. Sprinkle plentifully with finely minced parsley and the yolks of hard boiled eggs preyed through a sieve. When ready to serve cover with French dressing. 

Lobster Salad No. 3  (a la Boardman.) Pick the meat from two medium sized lobsters, cut into pieces and put in a salad bowl with three hard boiled eggs chopped fine. Peel and chop very fine two small sound shallots (or onions) add one and one half teaspoonfuls parsley, one small head of sound celery. Put all these finely chopped herbs in a bowl with the lobster meat and season with a tablespoonful of salt, one and a half of oil, two of vinegar, and half teaspoonful white or black pepper, same of Worcestershire sauce. Add three tablespoonfuls mayonnaise sauce and thoroughly and gently mix the whole. 

Lobster Salad No. 4  (a la Mexicano) This is the best salad when canned lobster must be used. Shrimp and other shellfish can be dressed in the same way. Cut up one pound of lobster meat coarsely and sprinkle with fine salt Put in a salad bowl with one tart apple sliced, one minced Spanish pepper and lettuce or celery as wished. Pour over it a French dressing. 

Lobster Salad No. 5  (a la Russe) Line a salad bowl with lettuce and heap upon it lobster meat and about the same quantity each of young boiled carrots and beets cut into small cubes, and mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Put more mayonnaise on, coloring it if wished and mix with a little Russian Caviar. 

Lobster 5alad No. 6  (Broiled) Split and broil live lobsters, pick the meat out and cut into half inch pieces. When still warm dip into melted butter and a little vinegar and then into Chili sauce. When cold and ready to serve mix with lettuce and dress with remoulade sauce or with Chili sauce alone 

Crab Salad— Hard Shell  Boil the crabs by plunging in hot salted water to remain for twenty or twenty-five minutes. When cold pick out the meat and treat as for lobster salad. It is usually preferred treated as with lobster salad number one. Do not obscure the delicacy of the crabs by strong seasoning. Remoulade sauce is the approved form of mayonnaise to use with this salad. 

Crab Salad— Soft Shell  Fry as usual, or better still broil the crabs after putting a little oil on them. Cool and cut into pieces of convenient size removing any hard or defective parts. Mix with lettuce and serve with mayonnaise, remoulade or tartare sauce. A few pickled mussels or oysters make a good garnish. 

Shrimp or Prawn Salad  This is made the same as any of the lobster or crab salads, that with lettuce and mayonnaise being the best If the shrimp are dry or salted soak in clear water until soft and fresh. Fresh shrimp require considerable salt. Examine carefully and see that no pieces of the thin shell remain in the mixture. Always have the salad as cold as possible. 

Shrimp Salad with Tomatoes  One can or one quart of fresh shrimp is required. Boil fresh shrimp fifteen minutes in salted water. Throw canned shrimp in cold water to soften for a few minutes. Pick out all pieces of shell carefully, drain and put in a cold place. Peel four to six smooth sound ripe tomatoes. Place all in a cool place. When ready to serve, slice the tomatoes and arrange prettily with the shrimp and pour over a mayonnaise dressing. 

Salad a Croquet  Shrimp salad made with water cresses is a croquet. Pick over carefully a good handful of the cress adding the leaves to the salad with any mild dressing liked. 

Crayfish Salad  Crayfish are excellent for salad and like shrimp are much appreciated if they can be had where lobsters, crabs and other saltwater crustaceans do not abound. Wash and boil in salted water for fifteen or twenty minutes. When cold remove the meat from the shells dividing that from the tails and removing the intestines. Place in a salad bowl with an equal quantity of lettuce and dress with mayonnaise. Hard boiled eggs or any garnish may be used with them. These directions are equally serviceable for the saltwater crayfish or the small ones found in freshwater. 

Mussel Salad  Wash and boil in the shells for five minutes, remove from the shells and dip in hot melted butter seasoned with salt, pepper and lemon juice. Cool and when ready to serve mix with lettuce and a French dressing. Thin buttered slices of Boston brown bread are good with this salad and any other made of shellfish. 

The most attractive way to serve a salad of oysters, clams, scallops etc., is in a bowl made of ice with the centre melted out with a hot iron. Stand in a large platter to catch the drip from the ice. Decorate with any pretty green. Serve the oysters with a little ladle on plates of shredded cabbage, celery, lettuce etc. Have the fish cold when put in the ice. 

Oyster Salad No. 1  Scald the oysters lightly in their own liquor only long enough to make them plump and frilled. Let them drain and get very cold. When ready to serve mix with mayonnaise, French dressing or tartare  sauce and lay each portion on plates of lettuce or mix the oysters with lettuce or celery cut rather fine using a salad bowl to mix in. For salads the small oysters are always preferred the large ones requiring to be cut which detracts from their appearance. 

Oyster Salad No. 2  Boil for five minutes two or three dozen small oysters with sufficient of their liquor or water to cover them: add a tablespoonful of vinegar and a little salt if the oysters are fresh. Drain and cool. Put in a salad bowl with one large or two small heads of lettuce torn to pieces, pour over all a mayonnaise and garnish with oyster crabs, stuffed olives or capers. 

Oyster Salad No. 3  Mix in a salad bowl one quart of cold raw oysters with two large heads of celery cut into quarter inch pieces. Pour over these, and just before helping mix all together, the following dressing. The yolks of three raw eggs and two yolks of hard boiled, with two or three tablespoonfuls of sweet oil, one small teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of black pepper and made English mustard. Stir until smooth and even and then thin by dropping in, while stirring hard, about four tablespoonfuls of good vinegar or lemon juice. 

Oyster Salad No. 4. For a small salad take two or three dozen cold raw oysters well drained, and an equal bulk of sweet raw cabbage cut into shreds: if preferred celery may be used but cabbage is generally liked best Dust salt over the cabbage and add just enough sweet oil to coat it when well mixed. Mix with the juice of one lemon a teaspoonful of grated horseradish, five drops of Tabasco sauce and pour over the oysters. Just before serving, the oysters and cabbage can be mixed but a better way is to have two bowls one holding the oysters, the other the cabbage and when serving place a portion of cabbage at each place and then with a small ladle put a few oysters over the cabbage or at the side of it. 

Clams or Oysters with Fish Salad  Take equal parts of cold boiled fish and oysters, soft or hard shell clams raw or slightly cooked removing the black heads. Cold clams from a Rhode Island clambake are good to use in this way but the hard shell or little neck clams are best uncooked. Mix with crisp lettuce in a salad bowl and serve with French dressing. 

Salad of Little Neck Clams  A most refreshing salad can be made with the hard shell clams or quahaugs called in the market little neck clams. Small ones look best but the large ones taste quite as well. Cut into small pieces and mix with twice the bulk of good lettuce using a French dressing with a few drops of onion juice or, if preferred, the dressing described for oyster salad number four. A little chopped fresh sweet basil harmonizes delightfully with the flavor of clams. 

Salad of Bong or Soft Shell Clams  Boil or roast the clams just long enough to make them firm and come out of their shell easily, or take cold clams from a Rhode Island clam bake cut off the black heads and remove all skin. Serve with lettuce and mayonnaise, plain dressing or any of those given for oyster salads. 

Scallop Salad— Cooked  Soak the scallops in cold salted water for an hour or and then cook in boiling salted water for five minutes: drain and cool. When cold slice them if preferred and sprinkle with good white vinegar. When ready to serve drain off the vinegar and arrange the scallops in a nest of lettuce leaves, shredded cabbage or celery and cover them with mayonnaise dressing. Capers or thin slices of pickled peppers or gherhins are nice to serve with them.

Scallop Salad— Raw  Serve cold as possible with an equal quantity of lettuce or shredded cabbage and a French dressing. If preferred use the dressing recommended in oyster salad number four. If the scallops seem too fresh salt them slightly. 

Scallop Salad— Fried  Fry as usual and if large cut in halves. Mix with two-thirds their bulk of cut celery and mayonnaise dressing. 

Luncheon Salad of Concha  About three pounds of conchs» alive, are put into boiling water for about five minutes or just long enough to loosen them from their shells: long boiling makes them tough. Cut into medium sized pieces and when cold serve in a salad bowl with lettuce and mayonnaise dressing. Capers and olives cut up and mixed with it is an improvement. Garnish with lettuce and cucumbers. Conchs are found on many parts of our coast and are offered in season in the large city fish markets. 

More excerpts to come from Maximilian De Loup’s 1899 masterpiece: The American Salad Book, The most complete and useful collection of salad recipes ever brought together.”

This goldmine of salad wisdom was mined by Wolfram Alderson, Salad Lover and Advisor to EatRx and CEO of the Hypoglycemia Support Foundation.

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