“Salad days” is a Shakespearean idiomatic expression meaning a youthful time, accompanied by the inexperience, enthusiasm, idealism, innocence, or indiscretion that one associates with a young person. A more modern use, especially in the United States, refers to a heyday, a period when somebody was at the peak of their abilities—not necessarily in that person’s youth.” -Wikipedia
Long before contemporary diet wars, a fellow named Maximilian De Loup wrote “The American Salad Book,” a classic described as “The most complete and useful collection of salad recipes ever brought together.”
Back in 1899, in the salad heydays, there were no diet wars, no “Paleo” “Vegan” “Keto” or “Vegetarian” fanatics shouting at each other on Twitter. (Cool to be any one of these, not so cool to be shouting at each other on Twitter!)
Folks ate food, including plants, animals, and seafood. Nobody was casting aspersions on each other’s diets – people just ate real food, and there were plenty of salads on the menu. Salad was a demilitarized zone!
“To learn to serve a salad is a most important qualification for one would master the art of entertaining.”
The “proficient salad mixer” was extolled to not attempt too much at first: practice on plain salads and dressings before elaborating them: study the tastes of your guests as well as the mixing of condiments.” Here, we see a salad ethic that abhors the idea of inflicting your dietary experiments or proclivities on others… to the contrary, try to understand and appease the preferences of your guests.
In this new (old) series, we will mine the glorious text of “The American Salad Book,” a delightful treasure of bygone salad days and rejoice in a diversity of salads that ought to make all the diet tribes happy.
EatRx does not adhere to any particular dietary dogma or approach, other than always emphasizing “real food”.
Let’s start with “Salad Dressings and Sauces”
Much has been written by salad masters on the importance of giving the utmost care and attention to the dressing of salads, for on this depends the success of the whole. The kind of dressings are numerous, almost innumerable, but the really good ones are indeed few. The French or plain dressing and the mayonnaise are in almost universal use throughout the civilized world and, with slight variations, are more generally approved than any other kind. Indeed, were they always to be had, directions for others would be nearly superfluous, but often good materials cannot be obtained and although good judges insist upon a liberal quantity of oil being used there are many people who will eat nothing which olive oil enters. It is said that a true salad artist never measures anything so nicely does he adapt the seasoning to the conditions and to the requirements of his guests. This is all very well where we have knowledge and experience, but with new things and new people a guide is necessary. In all directions given in this book, such quantities and proportions are used as experience has shown meet the average taste: however, nothing is absolute for the strength of the several condiments vary greatly, and, of course, a salad of salty materials will require less of that condiment in the dressing, and one of peppergrass, or other strong herbs, less pepper.
Much has been written about mayonnaise and we are told that properly it includes the whole preparation, meat, herbs, and dressing, but the term as used in the United States has been so long and universally applied to dressing alone that it would be misleading to attempt a change. Still, it should be understood, when other things than egg, oil, vinegar or lemon juice, salt, pepper, and mustard are added it is not a mayonnaise dressing but should be given another name. A perfect mayonnaise is a triumph of art: with good materials it is easily made but when the materials are poor, the dressing is, to put it mildly, indifferent.
The process of dropping oil from a bottle, as we get in this country, may be facilitated by cutting two grooves in the cork on opposite sides, one for the oil to run out of and the other to admit the air.
It is held by many salad makers that a small quantity of sugar, often little more than a “pinch,” should be added to all salad dressings for the purpose of bringing together the other seasonings in a more perfect affinity. It will do no harm if enough is not put in to give the dressing a sweet taste, but the moments this occurs the salad is spoiled, unless a sweet salad is wanted.
“Chapon,” for Green Salads. Cut from a loaf of bread a thin crust about one inch by two, sprinkle it with salt and rub with a clove of garlic crushed: toss the bread into the bottom of the salad bowl, before the salad is put in, and let remain in the salad during the process of mixing: remove before serving the salad.
Have all the materials ready, clean and cold, when about to begin. Do the mixing in a cool place and if the weather is hot set the bowl on ice before or during the mixing. A shallow bowl or soup plate is most convenient for beating. Use a silver or wooden fork or smooth wooden spoon. Have the yolks of two fresh raw eggs and two hard boiled ones in a cool bowl, drop on a little oil and rub to a cream: then add a teaspoonful of made English mustard (made by mixing ground mustard with warm water) two teaspoonfuls of dry fine salt and a sprinkle of Cayenne pepper: then drop in oil, drop by drop, stirring and beating hard all the time until the mixture is thick and solid enough to keep its shape and have a glassy look. It will require from eight tablespoonfuls to half a pint of oil, according to size of eggs and quality of materials. Thin the mixture by dropping in vinegar until the dressing is of proper consistency: about two tablespoonfuls of vinegar will be required. A few drops of lemon juice may be added but avoid using too much or it will give the dressing an acidity very unpleasant. Keep the dressing in a cold place until wanted. Just before using, the whites of the raw eggs are usually beaten to a stiff froth and then beaten into the dressing. If, when partly made, it “breaks” or curdles, put in a cool place and when ready begin over again with more egg and instead of using oil drop the curdled dressing into the bowl until it is used. This dressing is always acceptable for any of the numerous green, meat or fish salads where mayonnaise is wanted, but is subject to countless variations according to taste or fancy. When more eggs are used less oil is required, and vice versa. If a very mild dressing should be wanted, omit the mustard and pepper. This is the kind usually preferred for fresh fruit salads. For fruit salads a spoonful of fine sugar can be substituted for the mustard. For sweet fruit it can be made more acid and for acid fruit less so. Cream, if thick and fresh, can sometimes be used to advantage with less oil, especially for fruit and fresh vegetables. Keep in a separate dish and do not mix with other things until just before eating. The process of mixing should take from ten to fifteen minutes. When wanted to coat meats or fish use aspic jelly in place of raw eggs, warming it sufficient to melt and then putting the coated dish in an ice chest This is sometimes called a “jelly mayonnaise.”
White Mayonnaise is made by using less egg yolk and more lemon juice in place of vinegar, the acid of the lemon always tending to whiten the eggs. The addition of the beaten white of egg and cream also tend to make it white. If a golden yellow color is wished all these ingredients should be omitted.
Green Mayonnaise is prepared by using a little spinach juice in plain mayonnaise, or the juice of any fresh salad herbs, tarragon, bumet, or chives may be used if desired. The prepared colorings that may be bought of grocers are cheap and convenient and should not be harmful. Very soft mashed green peas are used to give color and consistency when the dressing is used to cover fish.
Red Mayonnaise is made by adding some of the prepared coloring, cooked beet juice or highly colored fruit juice to plain mayonnaise. For fish salads, pound the coral of lobster, mix with a little oil and when smooth add to the mayonnaise.
Horseradish Mayonnaise is made by adding about three tablespoonfuls of fresh grated horseradish to the given amount of plain mayonnaise, or, if prepared horseradish is used, take the same amount and use the vinegar in which it is packed instead of plain vinegar. This is a good relish on cold beef and fish salads.
English Salad Sauce, so called, is mayonnaise with eggs in the proportion of two hard boiled to one raw yolk, and about two-thirds as much thick sweet cream as oil, the whole being well beaten together for twenty minutes or more and then cooled in the ice chest.
Mayonnaise Tartare is simply the addition of a little chopped onions or of onion juice, chopped cucumber pickles or capers and parsley, chives, chopped olives or any green herb the flavor of which is desired.
The following sauces are, without exception, easily made and of such variety that it is possible to have a desirable change with nearly every salad made. The variety will be most welcome to those whose sole dependence has been the French and Mayonnaise dressings.
Remoulade Sauce is made the same as mayonnaise sauce without the raw eggs, the yolks of hard boiled eggs alone being used. This is designed for the convenience of those to whom raw Eggs are objectionable.
Vinaigrette Sauce. Mix together one tablespoonful of vinegar, three of oil, one teaspoonful each of chopped parsley, capers and scraped or grated onion. Season with one salt spoonful of salt and pepper or a few drops of Tabasco sauce.
Vinaigrette Sauce with Egg Mash the yolk of a hard boiled egg with three tablespoonfuls of oil, two of vinegar, a finely chopped shallot, one teaspoonful of chopped chives or half a teaspoonful of onion juice, as preferred, a salt- spoonful of salt and half as much pepper, Cayenne pepper preferred.
Bacon Sauce Made by frying thin slices of smoked bacon or ham fat and after straining, add one-third vinegar to two-thirds bacon oil. It may be thickened by adding a little flour mixed with cold water and then cooking. This is greatly relished on green salads, by many people, and is often available in camp or other places where olive oil is not to be had.
Boiled Salad Dressing This is best made with a double boiler, or bain marie or in a small kettle in a larger one of boiling water. The yolks and whites of three eggs are beaten separately and stirred in the boiler with one cup of cream or rich milk, one-quarter teacup of vinegar, one teaspoonful each of mustard and pepper. Cook slowly and when thick stir in two teaspoonfuls of salt If too thick, thin with more cream, melted butter or oil. Butter or oil can be used instead of cream using more milk to keep it from being too hard. Add a good teaspoonful of sugar if it is relished. Stir constantly when boiling and when cooling to make it smooth.
Boiled Salad Dressing No. 2 Yolks of eight eggs, one cup of cream, (if milk is used put in a little butter) one pint of vinegar, one teaspoonful of sugar. Put in a double boiler or bowl in boiling water and cook to a cream but not until it is solid. Take from the fire and add one tablespoonful of salt, one of black pepper and one of mustard, well mixed and rubbed together with oil until all the lumps are dissolved. More oil may be added to thin the dressing if the taste is desired.
Sour Cream Salad Dressing To a cupful of thick cream, sour but not too old, add a teaspoonful of salt, the juice of half a lemon, two teaspoonfuls of vinegar, a good sprinkling of Cayenne, or if a mild pepper is preferred use paprika in larger quantities, and a teaspoonful of sugar. Beat all together thoroughly. This is relished on salads of cold boiled vegetables and on tomatoes.
Albert Dressing Four tablespoonfuls of oil are well mixed with one each of wine and vinegar. A teaspoonful of salt and a little paprika or other mild red pepper is added.
Tomato Dressing Put in a frying pan two tablespoonfuls of butter, an onion of medium size sliced thin, and a small green pepper of the strong variety: a little Cayenne may be used if the green pepper is not available. Fry until highly colored, add about two cupfuls of tomatoes, cook and stir until the tomatoes are reduced to a pulp. Strain the mixture, return to the frying pan and thicken with an even teaspoonful of flour stirred in cold water. Let it cook slowly for nearly half an hour, seasoning with salt and a little clove or any other spice preferred. If too thick, thin with a little oil or hot water. To be eaten on any green salad with cold meats.
Sardine Dressing Take two sardines free from bones and skin, mash fine with one raw egg, one tablespoonful of oil, two of vinegar, one teaspoonful of made mustard, one of salt and one-quarter teaspoonful of pepper. Stir well together and add a small quantity of chopped parsley. Serve with fish salads or meat.
Bast Indian Salad Dressing The yolks of two hard boiled eggs rubbed smooth with eight tablespoonfuls of oil, a teaspoonful of curry powder and two tablespoonful of Tarragon vinegar.
Salmi Sauce Take half a carrot of medium size and cut into small pieces: half an onion, two bay leaves, a sprig of thyme and six whole peppercorns. Put these into a sauce pan with an ounce of butter and cook briskly for about five minutes or until all are of a golden yellow color. Chop the trimmings from the bird used and add to contents of the saucepan, together with half a wine glass of sherry, half a cupful of mushroom liquor, the juice of one lemon, a saltspoonful of salt, half as much pepper and a little nutmeg. Let all cook together for twenty minutes and then strain for use.
Alii|ond Salad Dressing For ripe peaches, sliced bananas, pears, fresh figs or any kind of ripe fruit the following dressing will be found most excellent. To every dozen sweet almonds allow four bitter ones. Blanch and remove the brown skins, then soak them in cold water for two hours and pound in a marble or a porcelain lined mortar, adding a little salt, a slight sprinkling of Cayenne pepper and a little lemon juice. When all are ground fine, thin with sherry wine to the consistency of cream. Just before using cold fresh cream can be stirred into it. If the fresh cream makes it too rich it may be omitted without detriment.
Lemon Dressing This is a most healthful and refreshing dressing to serve on lettuce or any green salad, and is frequently more relished by children and convalescents than any other dressing. Squeeze the juice from a lemon and add as much cold water as juice, half a saltspoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of fine sugar.
Hollandaise Sauce Especially good to use with fish salads when good oil is difficult to obtain. Rub half a cup of butter to a cream and add, slowly, the yolks of two eggs. Also add a saltspoonful of salt, a sprinkle of Cayenne pepper and the juice of one lemon. Pour in a half a cupful of boiling water and stand the bowl in a pan of boiling water or in the top of a tea kettle and stir until thick as cream.
Bearnaise Sauce Beat the yolks of four eggs and add four tablespoonfuls of oil, one of hot water and one of vinegar. Tarragon or plain: one teaspoonful of salt and a sprinkling of Cayenne pepper. Boil in a double boiler or on a ketde until thick, adding the vinegar last It should be like firm mayonnaise. By adding chopped pickles, capers, or olives with a few drops of Tabasco sauce a good sauce Tartare can be made.
Mexican Salad Dressing Crush fine in a stone or porcelain lined mortar a clove of garlic the size of a small pea and two small strong green peppers that have been boiled or roasted: add also three tomatoes of medium size that have been boiled and peeled. Grind all together thoroughly and pour over lettuce or cold boiled potatoes that have been dressed with salt, oil and vinegar.
Italian Salad Dressing Rub an anchovy quite smooth with a tablespoonful of oil and a teaspoonful of made mustard. Add three or four more tablespoonfuls of oil, one of garlic vinegar, and one of common vinegar. Stir until creamy and serve in a dish separate from the salad.
Salad Dressing with Cheese Rub four tablespoonfuls of oil into the yolks of two hard boiled eggs, then add a teaspoonful of grated Parmesan cheese, one of made mustard, one of Tarragon vinegar and a tablespoonful of cider vinegar. A spoonful of mushroom, walnut or other catsup can be added if the flavor is desired.
Ravigote Butter Chop very fine, or pound in a mortar, equal parts of Tarragon, parsley and chervil seasoned with a sprinkle of salt and pepper. Rub one tablespoonful of these mixed herbs into one-quarter pound of fresh butter and then put on ice to set When ready to use cut with slightly warmed cutter into pretty. shapes for garnishing.
Ravigote Sauce Put the yolks of two raw eggs and one ounce of butter into a small sauce pan or hain marie and place over the fire where it is not too hot and stir until it begins to thicken: add an ounce more of butter and stir again until it makes a cream. Then add pounded herbs, of chives use half a teaspoonful or a teaspoonful each of burnet, chervil, tarragon, parsley and others to suit the taste. Celery, bay leaves, capers, mustard, cresses and anchovies are sometimes added. It is made without cooking by using the yolk of one raw egg, and oil instead of butter: beat to a cream and add finely minced or powdered herbs.
Cucumber Jelly Peel and cut off the green ends of four large or five small cucumbers, cut into slices and stew in a quart of water with a small slice of onion, a little pepper and a small teaspoonful of salt When the cucumbers become soft, stir in half a box of gelatine that has been previously soaked in a cupful of water. Stir until the gelatin is dissolved and then strain through a fine sieve or strainer and put in moulds to harden. This is good with any fish salad, especially salmon. The fish can be flaked, put in the mould and hardened with the jelly. If served by itself sliced cucumbers are good in it It can be moulded in small egg cups or in individual moulds as preferred. This jelly is never more attractive than when surrounding a mound of pink salmon on a bed of fresh lettuce, the jelly broken and sparkling. French dressing should be used with it. Serve as cold as possible.
Tomato Jelly One quart of tomatoes, one small onion sliced, a few sprigs of parsley, three or four cloves, salt and a sprinkling of Cayenne, or a small hot pepper from the garden, are used in making this jelly. Stew the mixture until the tomatoes are soft, strain and add half a box of gelatine that has been soaked in a cup of water. There should be a little more than a pint of the liquid. Use as a garnish for meat or green salads. A large mould of the jelly on a bed of lettuce surrounded by mayonnaise is very attractive. Individual moulds on separate plates are convenient to serve with a large company. Use mayonnaise dressing with this jelly.
Mariarinade When meat or fish is dry and tasteless it is improved by putting in a marinade or sauce to stand for a time, one or two hours usually being sufficient A plain marinade is made by using one part oil to three parts vinegar, with pepper and salt to taste. Other flavors, sweet herbs, spices, etc., can be given by bruising in a little oil and letting them stand before mixing with the rest The use of marinade is usually carried to excess, the quantity of vinegar poured on destroying all other flavors. Use only enough to season the meat and only what will be absorbed by the meat
Cutting Meats for Salads Meat of all kinds for use in salads should be cut into uniform small slices or cubes as far as possible. If cut into pieces do not have them too small : a half inch is about right If smaller, or if chopped it stiggest hash, becomes wet and soggy with the dressing and is always unpleasant to the taste. When meat or fish of different kinds are put in the same salad, however, they need not be cut in equal sizes.
French or Plain Salad Dressing Take three tablespoonfuls of sweet oil, one of vinegary one saltspoonful of salt, one-half saltspoonful of pepper, and one-quarter of a teaspoonful of onion juice. Mix well and quickly and throw over the salad. This is the most popular of all salad dressings and the proportions are those generally approved, but are, of course, subject to many variations some of which follow.
Variations When onion flavor is objectionable it can be omitted but it gives a zest no other condiment affords. It should be used only in small quantities, never enough in a dressing to overpower the other seasonings. Those who are exceedingly fond of it should have onion salads, than which none are more healthful and invigorating. When introduced judiciously into a salad, onions are usually relished even by the most strenuous objectors to the vegetable who will not notice it in the salad when perfectly blended with the other ingredients and without strong odor. A few drops of juice, squeezed out with a porcelain lined lemon squeezer and mixed with the oil is the preferred way of introducing it, but if the onion juice cannot be readily used, scrape a little of the raw onion and mix with a part of the oil, let it stand for fifteen minutes or longer then press the oil out and mix with the dressing.
When garlic is used, rub a crushed clove of it on the bottom of the bowl in which the dressing is mixed, or, if mixed in the French manner by working the oil over the lettuce first, rub the garlic on a small piece of stale bread, called in France the “chapon, ” and toss it about in the bowl with the salad, rubbing some salt over it after the garlic is used.
When the slight flavor of strong herbs is relished in a salad, a small quantity of them can be crushed in a stone or porcelain mortar and then macerated or soaked in a little oil, which may be pressed out with a thin spoon and added to the dressing. Summer savory or thyme can thus be used in a plain salad to accompany roasted or broiled poultry. Sweet marjoram or sage is used with green geese or ducks, mint with lamb or venison and sweet basil with fish or clams. Orange flowers, or the tender buds and leaves, may be used. Basil, bumet, caraway, balm, chervil or any other herbs may be used in place of those mentioned, taste being the guide in all cases.
English Salad Dressing is made by the addition of a teaspoonful of made mustard to the given quantity of French dressing.
ALMOST any kind of cold cooked fish can be acceptably served as a salad, that which is boiled being generally preferred. If a small quantity of vinegar is added to the water in which the fish is boiled, it will make the flesh firm yet tender.
Fish salads require the addition of fresh acids, lemon juice being the most grateful addition to the fish that is at all insipid as are some of the freshwater kinds. Stewed gooseberries are much liked as a dressing or accompaniment by many and may be properly used with any cooked fish. Chervil vinegar or a few leaves of fresh chervil impart a delightful relish. Fennel is also good for the same purpose.
Remove most carefully all scales, bones or skin that may remain on the fish before mixing a salad, but do not divide the flesh in too small pieces. In the case of a large fish the salad looks best and is most appetizing when the natural ” flakes ‘* are simply separated, without being broken, and lightly mixed in the salad.
Cucumber salad is the best accompaniment to fresh salmon, with plain dressing : or cucumber jelly may be used by way of variety. A boiled fish served whole as a salad is best for suppers or collations, but in warm weather it makes a good fish course for dinner when more or less elaborately decorated.
Cold chicory salad is delightful with deviled crabs or lobsters.
Herring Salad Take fresh herring of large size and boil until tender. Remove the skin and bones and cut the fish diagonally in halves. Pour over it a dressing made as follows. For three pounds of fish take one pint of vinegar, two teaspoonfuls of whole pepper, two of allspice and three whole cloves. Mix the vinegar, allspice, cloves and two bay leaves together and heat slowly, but do not boil, for twenty minutes. When entirely cold mix with the salad. Between each layer of fish lay two bay leaves and two or three slices of red onion. Salt to taste. Garnish with small pickles and slices of red beets. Small thin slices of buttered brown bread should be served with this salad.
English Herring Salad Soak four large, or six medium sized salted herring in cold water to draw out the salt, then pick the meat from the bones, divide into small pieces, and mix with an equal quantity of cold meat using veal, mutton or beef as preferred: then add three hard boiled eggs, two large boiled potatoes and two apples all cut into small pieces. Cucumbers and beets may also be added if desired. Stir together a quarter of a teacupful of rich cream, half as much vinegar and a little sugar and pepper and mix with the other things. Place the mixture in the centre of a platter and surround with a sauce of cream, vinegar, mustard and sugar, or with oil, vinegar and pepper. Chop a hard boiled egg and sprinkle the particles over the salad.
Herring Salad with Potatoes Wash four salt herring and soak in milk for several hours, then drain, remove the fillets from the sides and cut into small pieces. Cut eight ounces of cold boiled potatoes, four ounces of tart apples, four ounces of pickled beets, (the roots) and four ounces of pickled cucumbers into pieces about a quarter of an inch square. Then mince very fine half a pound of roast veal and mix with the other things in a salad bowl, seasoning with salt and vinegar, pepper, mustard and chopped chives. Sprinkle chopped parsley over the top and decorate with anchovies, pickles and hard boiled eggs. Use a little more dressing or hot water if not sufficiently moist.
Dutch Herring Salad This is said to be the true Holland herring salad but by the addition of other fruits and vegetables if becomes an Italian or a Russian salad. Four large, or five small Holland herring are soaked in milk or water for three hours, and then cut into small square pieces after all the skin and bones are carefully picked out. Cut two quarts of hot boiled potatoes into slices, pour over them enough Rhine wine to moisten them and keep in a close covered dish until cold. Chop the yolks of four hard boiled eggs and mix with the potatoes and fish. Season with coarse black pepper freshly ground. If the fish are with roe, soak in vinegar or Rhine wine a few minutes, then separate the roe and sprinkle them over the salad. If milt herring, pound the milt to a paste, thin with wine or vinegar and pour over the rest.
Fresh Herring Salad Clean and remove the heads from two fresh herring, split in two and sprinkle with salt and lemon juice, and let them stand for three hours. Dry and broil, rubbing a little butter over them. Remove bones, skin, etc., and divide into small pieces. Pick the leaves from a small handful of cress and put in a salad bowl with the herring, adding two or three cold potatoes cut into slices. Pour over all a plain salad dressing, sprinkle with capers, mix and serve.
Smoked Herring Salad Carefully separate the meat from two good sized American smoked herring and divide into small pieces. Mix in a salad bowl with one head of lettuce and a plain dressing with some hard boiled eggs. If preferred mix with a remoulade sauce.
Herring Salad, Italian Style The meat of two salt herring is soaked in milk or water for three hours and then cut up fine. To half a pound of roast veal and a quarter of a pound of Bologna sausage add three tart apples, three cold boiled potatoes, sliced, and four or five small pickled beets with a small quantity of some other desired pickle, minced fine. Make a dressing of the milt of herring nibbed to a paste, with six tablespoonfuls of sweet oil: add half a teaspoonful of white or black pepper, a teaspoonful of French or German mustard, three of vinegar (tarragon). Mix thoroughly and pour over the salad. This salad is improved, in the estimation of many people, by standing in a cold place for two hours before serving.
Frog Salad This is one of the most delicate and delicious of all salads. Clean and skin the frogs and soak in salted water about an hour. If large frogs can be had, the greater part of the body can be used, but of the small frogs, called in the market Canadian frogs, the legs only are worth troubling with. Boil slowly until quite tender: drain off the water, cover with milk and let this come to a boil being careful that the milk does not bum. Drain again and cool, separate the meat from the bones and salt a little if too fresh. Then mix in a salad bowl with about the same quantity of young lettuce, or if lettuce is not obtainable celery may be used. A few leaves of watercress may be added, or a little minced parsley, or sweet basil but do not add enough strong herbs or seasoning to destroy the delicacy of the meat. Serve with a mild mayonnaise or French dressing. Hard boiled eggs for garnishing will increase the quantity of a small salad, or cray-fish may be used for this purpose where they are obtainable.
Mackerel Salad No. 1 This is made the same a Herring Salad using mackerel instead of herring.
Mackerel Salad No. 2 Boil fresh mackerel slowly for about twenty-five minutes or half an hour, drain, cool and pick all the good meat from the bones, skin and separate it into small pieces but do not chop or hash it. Put it in a salad bowl with heart leaves of lettuce, one large head or two small ones to each fish. Salt the water the fish was boiled in, or sprinkle a little fine salt over the prepared fish. Serve with remoulade sauce or French dressing. Tiny clams, hard boiled eggs, spiced mussels, or shrimp are good for garnishing.
Mackerel Salad No. 3 Salt or pickled mackerel make a salad very relishing in early spring when other materials are scarce. Boil the fish and pick over carefully: mix cold boiled potatoes and fresh cress with the fish in the proportion of two-thirds of the fish to one-third of both vegetables, and serve with French dressing. Celery and potatoes are also good with this fish.
Salad of Shad Roe Separate the grains of a shad roe boiled in salted water, by washing in vinegar. Place in a salad bowl with the leaves of one head of lettuce and one pint of tomatoes peeled and cut small. Dress with three tablespoonfuls of oil, and two of lemon juice with salt and Cayenne pepper or Tabasco sauce to taste. The large roe of any fish is excellent treated in the same manner. Another way is to boil the roe in salted water with a sliced onion, a bay leaf or any herb fancied, for about twenty-five minutes. Then remove and drop into iced water. When perfectly cold, drain and cut into small slices. Sprinkle with salt, pepper and a little lemon juice and put on ice until wanted. When ready to serve mix with leaves of watercress and place on lettuce. Serve with boiled, mayonnaise or French dressing.
Salmon Salad (American) Cold boiled salmon is usually served whole in this country covered with firm mayonnaise often elaborately colored and ornamented. Many caterers pride themselves on their skill in serving it Being a fish that stands freezing, and transportation on ice with less loss of flavor than most kinds, it is available in most parts of the country. Boil the fish in salted water in which half a cup of good vinegar has been poured, if the fish is a large one : a less quantity of vinegar will do for a small fish. Boil for half an hour if a small fish, longer if large, allowing ten to twelve minutes for each pound of fish after boiling begins: better boil too long than to have the fish underdone. A bunch of sweet herbs sometimes called a “bouquet” can be boiled with the fish, the bouquet being composed of thyme, celery leaves, parsley, bay leaves, basil, etc. Small sliced onions and cloves will give the herbs additional flavor and be relished by many, but care should be taken not to season the fish so highly as to destroy the natural flavor and delicacy so pronounced in a good fish. A piece of clean muslin or mosquito netting wrapped around the fish and tied will prevent its boiling to pieces. If wanted whole, place on a long platter, or board, covered with a napkin, after removing the fins, skin and small bones. Place on ice and when cold cover with a stiff mayonnaise colored and decorated as may be fancied. If broken or part of a fish, divide into flakes or small pieces, do not mince, and arrange in a small salad bowl with good lettuce and serve with mayonnaise dressing. Decorate by placing a few of the pinkest and best formed flakes on top. When canned salmon has to be served this method of preparation is the best Serve a plain dressing if preferred. Celery is sometimes used instead of lettuce but is not so good. A few watercresses are good to serve with fresh salmon.
Salmon Salad (English) After being carefully cleaned and scalded, boil the fish in a stew pan with thin slices of onions, carrots and mushrooms, a bunch of sweet herbs, salt, pepper, spice and a glass of white wine. Cut the fish into slices as thin as a silver half dollar and set them around the dish. Garnish with hearts of lettuce, hard boiled eggs, slices of boiled carrots, gherkins, anchovies and capers. Make a cold ravigote sauce and pour over the whole.
Broiled Salmon Salad is made by broiling the fish in steaks instead of boiling : in this way it takes less time to prepare the fish and is more convenient. Broil the fish and when well done remove the bones and skin, break the fish into flakes and put in a dish with salt, pepper, vinegar or lime juice sprinkled over it, using only a very little oil as the £sh is naturally rich and oily. Let it stand for about an hour and then dress in a salad bowl with lettuce and mayonnaise dressing. If lettuce is not to be had, cold boiled potatoes may be used instead, and a few cresses will be a welcome addition. Hard boiled eggs and chopped cucumber pickles or capers are relished with this salad.
Salmon and Cucumbers make a good salad served with French dressing both to be fresh and cold.
Salmon and Asparagus Salad Arrange cold boiled asparagus that is tender on a large platter or flat dish, with the tips outward if possible. Season with a French dressing or sprinkle with oil, vinegar, salt and pepper if more convenient Pile the flaked salmon in the centre of the platter or dish sprinkling with a little lemon juice if the fish is too dry. Put in an ice chest until perfectly cold and, just before serving, pour mayonnaise dressing over the fish.
Salmon and Green Pea Salad is made the same as asparagus salad using green peas with the salmon.
Russian Salmon Salad What is called salmon salad a la Basse is made by decorating a mound with tails of crayfish, hard boiled eggs, truffles, oysters, etc., as well as cold boiled vegetables cut into fancy shapes, dipped into strong aspic jelly to hold them in place and then filling the mound with cold boiled salmon and a clear, highly flavored aspic jelly, cucumber jelly being the favorite. When hard and cold, turn out of the mound and serve in a platter with mayonnaise dressing poured around it.
French Fish Salad A favorite way with our Gallic friends is to cut nice slices from cold boiled fish, three or four inches long and place them on plates of lettuce: over that is poured a heaping tablespoonful of mayonnaise dressing in which sardines ground and mashed have been stirred, or a sardine boned and freed from skin is laid on the slice of fish before the dressing is put on. Minced parsley, chervil, basil, fennel or any salad herb preferred can be sprinkled over the top. The sardine flavor is an addition when the fish is flat or weak in flavor but with salmon, horse mackerel or any rich, highly flavored fish had better be omitted.
Spanish Fish Salad Arrange on individual plates, or in a salad dish, boiled fish on lettuce, then a layer of sweet pepper shredded as fine as possible, hard boiled eggs and olives sliced. Serve with French dressing made with onion juice, or if made in a salad bowl, the bowl can be rubbed with garlic.
Anchovy Salad The bottled anchovies are the best to use if they are obtainable. If salted anchovies are to be used soak them in cold water for about two hours or until they are well freshened, they drain and dry them and remove the skin, bones etc., dividing the meat into small pieces and squeezing the juice of a lemon over it. Mix with lettuce or celery cut into rather small pieces. Hard boiled eggs should be cut up and mixed with lettuce and fish, nearly as much egg as fish. Cold boiled potatoes, string beans, sliced raw onions and other vegetables are often added. Serve with French dressing made with onion juice or tartare sauce. Six to eight salt anchovies are enough for an ordinary salad but if small or bottled ones are used more are required.
Sardine Salad Sardine, salad can be made with either lettuce or celery with a sprinkling of any other fine herb that will be relished for flavoring. To one small box of sardines, two good stalks of celery or an equal quantity of lettuce is about the right proportion. If the oil in which the sardines is packed is poor, drain it carefully off and scrape away with the skin and bones of the fish, but if the oil is of good quality most people like a little of it mixed with the salad. Use mayonnaise or French dressing. If mayonnaise is used the salad looks well served in a flat glass dish or platter. Like all fish salads it harmonizes well with hard boiled eggs but all fish salads should not be garnished alike.
Salt Codfish Salad Take about half of an ordinary sized salt codfish and soak overnight in plenty of water. Dry and cut away the fins etc., rub with butter and broiL When cold pick out the meat and divide into quarter inch pieces. Put in a bowl and cover with French dressing letting it stand an hour. Mix with crisp lettuce and serve with mayonnaise or French dressing. Salt salmon may be used in the same way. Another method of preparing is to broil the fish as directed and put in a bowl finely divided with a little more than the same quantity of hot potatoes sliced: pour over it a claret glass of Rhine wine, cover and allow it to cool. When ready to serve add a few endive leaves. Dress with a French dressing and serve. Boiled codfish may be used in the same way but is not so good. Still another way is to soak the fish to remove the salt and then, for a family salad, pick about a cupful into fine shreds. Cut an onion into a pan with a tablespoonful of butter and cook until browned. : then add the fish and cook very slowly for a few minutes. If too dry add enough water to keep it quite moist. Shredded green pepper can be added to the onion if liked. When cold arrange in a salad bowl with tomatoes, peeled and sliced, or lettuce, and dress with French dressing.
Eel Salad is best made with endive. Pick the meat from cooked or potted eels and add to it an equal quantity of bleached endive. Serve with remoulade dressing. Garnish with lemon, pickled oysters, crabs, shrimp, etc.
Whitebait Salad The little fish that are sold as white bait are the fry of nearly all large fish according to the locality in which they are caught. Mackerel, shad, herring, smelt, black-fish, weak-fish are the most common. When wanted for salad, after being well washed and wiped, dredge them with flour and fry in a kettle of hot boiling fat. Drain, cool and serve with lettuce and mayonnaise dressing or tartare sauce.
Sheepshead or “Scup” Salad Either of these fish or those of similar character make good salads boiled with flavoring herbs or vinegar. When cold, remove the white meat, divide into flakes and mix with crisp lettuce and mayonnaise dressing. If preferred the meat may be given a marinade of Worcestershire sauce diluted with vinegar and then mixed with lettuce and remoulade dressing. Crab or lobster meat, shrimp, etc., are good for garnishing.
Fisherman’s Salad This is often acceptable on the water or in camp. Take the proportions of two pounds of cooked fish in clean meat, one of cold boiled potatoes and half a head of cold cabbage using, if possible, both the red and white cabbage. Finely chopped pickles or cucumbers added are good. Serve with any good dressing available. A liberal supply of pepper is usually relished when this salad is eaten in the open air.
Halibut Salad is one of the best of fish salads. Have boiled halibut and add one half its bulk of lettuce or celery, or, to one quarter the quantity of halibut add one quarter boiled cauliflower or potatoes. Vinaigrette Sauce, Sardine dressing, Hollandaise sauce. Anchovy dressing or plain French dressing with or without onions are all good for use with this salad.
Lake Trout Salad The larger salmon or lake trout can be served in salads like salmon, or they can be boiled in water slightly salted to which a little vinegar or half the quantity of acid wine has been added. Herbs, sliced onions etc., can be added to the water but avoid destroying the flavor of the fish by over seasoning. iLiet the fish drain and cool, then pick the meat out carefully and mix with good lettuce, French or mayonnaise dressing.
Brook Trout Salad When this delightful fish is available for salad it is most excellent prepared in the following manner. Boil the fish in salted water to which a little vinegar or acid wine has been added and any flavoring herb desired, cool and drain: then split each fish down the back, being careful not to break the fish, remove all bones, but not the head, keeping the natural shape of the fish. When ready to serve, have, on separate plates, nicely arranged, lettuce carefully dressed with French dressing.
Turbot Salad can be made the same as sole or flounder salad and is, perhaps, better than either. Any of the directions for boiled fish salads can be carried out with turbot
Smelt Salad The peculiar taste that smelt have at times is relished by some and disliked by others but nearly everyone likes the fish when made into salad. There are more elaborate salads in use than those here given but they are not adapted to American use. Boil a dozen smelt fifteen minutes, drain and cool, then remove the meat from all the bones and cut in half inch pieces. Arrange in a salad bowl with two crisp heads of lettuce and sprinkle with two salted anchovies, minced fine. Serve with mild mayonnaise or remoulade sauce.
Salad of Smelts An old English Recipe. Take fifty smelt of large size that have been cleaned, drawn and heads cut off and put them to soak in a pint of white wine vinegar, or sufficient to cover them when packed close. Put among them one onion and two sliced lemons, a race of ginger, three or four blades of mace, a nutmeg sliced or crushed, a dozen whole black peppers and a spoonful of salt Let them stand covered at least twenty-four hours: if desired to keep them for some days see that the vinegars not too strong for the taste, diluting, if necessary. When wanted for use remove from the pickle, scrape, split open and cut out all the bones. Arrange on a dish with open sides up and sprinkle with the grated yellow rind of orange or lemon and chopped parsley, fine pepper and lemon juice. Pour on a good quantity of salad oil and let them stand for some time to absorb all the oil they will.
Sole or Hounder Salad Boil four or five pounds of the fish, a single large fish is best, and let it get quite cold then remove the white meat carefully from the skin and bones, divide it into flakes and cover with a marinade of French dressing, let it remain half an hour and then drain, When ready to serve mix with lettuce and remoulade sauce or put the fish on leaves of lettuce and pour a spoonful of dressing over it. Very small little neck clams, oyster crabs or shrimp are good for garnishing.
Bloater Salad Remove the skin and bones from two Yarmouth bloaters that have been boiled or broiled, and cut the meat into shreds. Mix in a salad bowl with two good sized boiled potatoes, sliced small, a head of bleached endive, minced capers and a few minced fresh herbs if they can be had. Chopped anchovies are sometimes added. French dressing is used with this salad.
Tropical Pish Salad Fish salad is made in South America and other warm climates by cleaning the fish, splitting it and then covering it with lemon or lime juice and letting it remain for twelve hours. The fish is cooked by the action of the acid, the bones and skin carefully taken out and the fish served with lettuce or shredded cabbage palm and a French or remoulade dressing.
Shell Fish Salads
The various shellfish obtainable in almost all parts of this country, provide us with material for salad making which, to say the least, adds variety to the list of favorite salads. Shellfish salads are especially desirable in hot weather and they always acquire an additional flavor when the fish are caught by one’s self. Along the sea shore, in the various rivers running into the ocean, “crabbing” is one of the delightful occupations of summer visitors, which reaches its most complete enjoyment when the day’s catch is served in one of the several delicious ways.
Salads made with lobsters are the most generally approved of all fish salads. They are among the easiest to make but alas! one of the most rare to find good, either on public or private tables. Too great elaboration and the use of too high seasoning are the common faults. Nothing can be finer than the natural relish and delicate flavoring of fresh lobster, and all our efforts should tend to preserve and accentuate instead of diminishing or obscuring its delicacy.
Medium sized lobsters are to be preferred, for large ones are often tough while small ones have little meat and are generally soft and tasteless from too long boiling. Lobsters can always be bought fresh and well boiled at the fish markets and are usually better by being boiled in large numbers. If the lobsters are uncooked, boil from thirty to forty-five minutes as they are large or small, and when cold pick out the meat carefully from the shells rejecting the stomach and sand pouch as well as the intestines that run through the tail.
If one is not familiar with the formation of the lobster it is best to get instruction from some experienced person in breaking the shell and extracting the meat. Take time in doing this work and be careful to save all the green fat, and scrape off that which adheres to the inside of the shells. The more delicate and highly flavored parts are usually thrown away in hotels and restaurants because it saves the servants time and avoids trouble: the consequent result is the abomination usually served as lobster salad. It is said that chefs are scarce who do not claim that they can make a better salad than anyone else but he who can make a better one than number one here given is a genius.
Lobster Salad No. 1 Pick the meat carefully from the shells being careful that no small pieces of shell gets among it. Cut the large pieces up into half inch bits, but not smaller or the dish will have a heavy sodden look. Sprinkle lightly with fine salt and when ready to serve mix with a little more than its own bulk of crisp lettuce torn into convenient sized pieces. Pour over the whole a mayonnaise dressing made with mustard and into which the fat of the lobster has been beaten, Mix lightly just before serving so that each guest will get the proper proportion of both salad and dressing.
Avoid elaborate garnishes. Put a few well-formed leaves of lettuce around the edges of the plates and sprinkle the coral or eggs of the lobster, broken into fine bits, over the top. Nothing can be more attractive than the scarlet and white of the fish with the green and cream of the lettuce. Let no one persuade you to put vinegar or anything but a little salt on the lobster meat If more acid is wanted sprinkle a little lemon juice or vinegar over the lettuce.
The claws and parts of the shell are often used as an attractive garnish but they make it awkward in helping and mixing and are untidy on the table. Stoned olives, sliced beets, capers etc., are commonly added but should not be mixed with the salad. Let them be served on a separate dish if wanted, each guest helping himself. Hard boiled eggs harmonize in taste and can be used to increase the quantity of salad if necessary. Serve good bread and butter with this salad, and on no account let the salad stand long after the dressing is mixed with it.
Lobster Salad No. 2 (a L’ Allemand) Pick out the meat of the lobster and arrange on a bed of lettuce or on individual plates. Sprinkle plentifully with finely minced parsley and the yolks of hard boiled eggs preyed through a sieve. When ready to serve cover with French dressing.
Lobster Salad No. 3 (a la Boardman.) Pick the meat from two medium sized lobsters, cut into pieces and put in a salad bowl with three hard boiled eggs chopped fine. Peel and chop very fine two small sound shallots (or onions) add one and one half teaspoonfuls parsley, one small head of sound celery. Put all these finely chopped herbs in a bowl with the lobster meat and season with a tablespoonful of salt, one and a half of oil, two of vinegar, and half teaspoonful white or black pepper, same of Worcestershire sauce. Add three tablespoonfuls mayonnaise sauce and thoroughly and gently mix the whole.
Lobster Salad No. 4 (a la Mexicano) This is the best salad when canned lobster must be used. Shrimp and other shellfish can be dressed in the same way. Cut up one pound of lobster meat coarsely and sprinkle with fine salt Put in a salad bowl with one tart apple sliced, one minced Spanish pepper and lettuce or celery as wished. Pour over it a French dressing.
Lobster Salad No. 5 (a la Russe) Line a salad bowl with lettuce and heap upon it lobster meat and about the same quantity each of young boiled carrots and beets cut into small cubes, and mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Put more mayonnaise on, coloring it if wished and mix with a little Russian Caviar.
Lobster 5alad No. 6 (Broiled) Split and broil live lobsters, pick the meat out and cut into half inch pieces. When still warm dip into melted butter and a little vinegar and then into Chili sauce. When cold and ready to serve mix with lettuce and dress with remoulade sauce or with Chili sauce alone
Crab Salad— Hard Shell Boil the crabs by plunging in hot salted water to remain for twenty or twenty-five minutes. When cold pick out the meat and treat as for lobster salad. It is usually preferred treated as with lobster salad number one. Do not obscure the delicacy of the crabs by strong seasoning. Remoulade sauce is the approved form of mayonnaise to use with this salad.
Crab Salad— Soft Shell Fry as usual, or better still broil the crabs after putting a little oil on them. Cool and cut into pieces of convenient size removing any hard or defective parts. Mix with lettuce and serve with mayonnaise, remoulade or tartare sauce. A few pickled mussels or oysters make a good garnish.
Shrimp or Prawn Salad This is made the same as any of the lobster or crab salads, that with lettuce and mayonnaise being the best If the shrimp are dry or salted soak in clear water until soft and fresh. Fresh shrimp require considerable salt. Examine carefully and see that no pieces of the thin shell remain in the mixture. Always have the salad as cold as possible.
Shrimp Salad with Tomatoes One can or one quart of fresh shrimp is required. Boil fresh shrimp fifteen minutes in salted water. Throw canned shrimp in cold water to soften for a few minutes. Pick out all pieces of shell carefully, drain and put in a cold place. Peel four to six smooth sound ripe tomatoes. Place all in a cool place. When ready to serve, slice the tomatoes and arrange prettily with the shrimp and pour over a mayonnaise dressing.
Salad a Croquet Shrimp salad made with watercresses is a croquet. Pick over carefully a good handful of the cress adding the leaves to the salad with any mild dressing liked.
Crayfish Salad Crayfish are excellent for salad and like shrimp are much appreciated if they can be had where lobsters, crabs and other saltwater crustaceans do not abound. Wash and boil in salted water for fifteen or twenty minutes. When cold remove the meat from the shells dividing that from the tails and removing the intestines. Place in a salad bowl with an equal quantity of lettuce and dress with mayonnaise. Hard boiled eggs or any garnish may be used with them. These directions are equally serviceable for the saltwater crayfish or the small ones found in freshwater.
Mussel Salad Wash and boil in the shells for five minutes, remove from the shells and dip in hot melted butter seasoned with salt, pepper and lemon juice. Cool and when ready to serve mix with lettuce and a French dressing. Thin buttered slices of Boston brown bread are good with this salad and any other made of shellfish.
The most attractive way to serve a salad of oysters, clams, scallops etc., is in a bowl made of ice with the centre melted out with a hot iron. Stand in a large platter to catch the drip from the ice. Decorate with any pretty green. Serve the oysters with a little ladle on plates of shredded cabbage, celery, lettuce etc. Have the fish cold when put in the ice.
Oyster Salad No. 1 Scald the oysters lightly in their own liquor only long enough to make them plump and frilled. Let them drain and get very cold. When ready to serve mix with mayonnaise, French dressing or tartare sauce and lay each portion on plates of lettuce or mix the oysters with lettuce or celery cut rather fine using a salad bowl to mix in. For salads the small oysters are always preferred the large ones requiring to be cut which detracts from their appearance.
Oyster Salad No. 2 Boil for five minutes two or three dozen small oysters with sufficient of their liquor or water to cover them: add a tablespoonful of vinegar and a little salt if the oysters are fresh. Drain and cool. Put in a salad bowl with one large or two small heads of lettuce torn to pieces, pour over all a mayonnaise and garnish with oyster crabs, stuffed olives or capers.
Oyster Salad No. 3 Mix in a salad bowl one quart of cold raw oysters with two large heads of celery cut into quarter inch pieces. Pour over these, and just before helping mix all together, the following dressing. The yolks of three raw eggs and two yolks of hard boiled, with two or three tablespoonfuls of sweet oil, one small teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of black pepper and made English mustard. Stir until smooth and even and then thin by dropping in, while stirring hard, about four tablespoonfuls of good vinegar or lemon juice.
Oyster Salad No. 4. For a small salad take two or three dozen cold raw oysters well drained, and an equal bulk of sweet raw cabbage cut into shreds: if preferred celery may be used but cabbage is generally liked best Dust salt over the cabbage and add just enough sweet oil to coat it when well mixed. Mix with the juice of one lemon a teaspoonful of grated horseradish, five drops of Tabasco sauce and pour over the oysters. Just before serving, the oysters and cabbage can be mixed but a better way is to have two bowls one holding the oysters, the other the cabbage and when serving place a portion of cabbage at each place and then with a small ladle put a few oysters over the cabbage or at the side of it.
Clams or Oysters with Fish Salad Take equal parts of cold boiled fish and oysters, soft or hard shell clams raw or slightly cooked removing the black heads. Cold clams from a Rhode Island clambake are good to use in this way but the hard shell or little neck clams are best uncooked. Mix with crisp lettuce in a salad bowl and serve with French dressing.
Salad of Little Neck Clams A most refreshing salad can be made with the hard shell clams or quahaugs called in the market little neck clams. Small ones look best but the large ones taste quite as well. Cut into small pieces and mix with twice the bulk of good lettuce using a French dressing with a few drops of onion juice or, if preferred, the dressing described for oyster salad number four. A little chopped fresh sweet basil harmonizes delightfully with the flavor of clams.
Salad of Bong or Soft Shell Clams Boil or roast the clams just long enough to make them firm and come out of their shell easily, or take cold clams from a Rhode Island clam bake cut off the black heads and remove all skin. Serve with lettuce and mayonnaise, plain dressing or any of those given for oyster salads.
Scallop Salad— Cooked Soak the scallops in cold salted water for an hour or and then cook in boiling salted water for five minutes: drain and cool. When cold slice them if preferred and sprinkle with good white vinegar. When ready to serve drain off the vinegar and arrange the scallops in a nest of lettuce leaves, shredded cabbage or celery and cover them with mayonnaise dressing. Capers or thin slices of pickled peppers or gherkins are nice to serve with them.
Scallop Salad— Raw Serve cold as possible with an equal quantity of lettuce or shredded cabbage and a French dressing. If preferred use the dressing recommended in oyster salad number four. If the scallops seem too fresh salt them slightly.
Scallop Salad— Fried Fry as usual and if large cut in halves. Mix with two-thirds their bulk of cut celery and mayonnaise dressing.
Luncheon Salad of Concha About three pounds of conchs» alive, are put into boiling water for about five minutes or just long enough to loosen them from their shells: long boiling makes them tough. Cut into medium sized pieces and when cold serve in a salad bowl with lettuce and mayonnaise dressing. Capers and olives cut up and mixed with it is an improvement. Garnish with lettuce and cucumbers. Conchs are found on many parts of our coast and are offered in season in the large city fish markets.
Tame and Wild Fowl Salads
SALADS made from the flesh of either tame or wild fowls are especially favored by Americans and with reason. The American housekeeper assuredly possesses the knack of cooking fowl in a manner which renders it especially appetizing, yet retaining all the delicacy of flavor.
Chicken Salad This is justly regarded as an American dainty, for owing to some reason which cannot be explained, it is never found in perfection anywhere else and often times even in this country is not what it should be. Over-elaboration is the usual fault in preparation and too much acid in the dressing which destroys the delicacy of the flavor and, in public places, gives rise to the suspicion that it is used to disguise a disagreeable taste. Much nonsense has been written about chicken salad and many recipes, especially foreign ones, are misleading. Chicken salad is in perfection during the fall and winter because chicken and celery are at their best then. When celery is not to be had lettuce may be substituted but is never as good. Crisp cabbage may also be used. Boiled chicken is always best for salad making but the remains of almost any roast fowl are acceptable dressed in this way.
The best chicken salad is made by boiling the fowls until tender and then letting them remain in the water until nearly or quite cold, which will prevent the meat from being too dry. This can be done the day before the birds are wanted for use. When cold and well drained, pick the white meat from the bones, carefully rejecting all pieces of skin, dark meat and bones, and cut into pieces about half an inch square. Sprinkle with fine salt and put on ice. Cut only the white and tender parts of celery into pieces about a quarter of an inch thick, rejecting any that is dark and tough. Have one-third chicken meat and two-thirds celery, as a rule, though more chicken is often allowed. When ready to serve mix with a liberal allowance of mild mayonnaise and serve as soon as possible thereafter. The colder it is, short of being frozen, the better it will be. It is customary to decorate chicken salads with hard boiled eggs, slices of pickled beets and stoned olives, but as the taste of some of these garnishings may he disagreeable to some of the guests, it is best not to mix them in the salad but to serve the sliced beets, olives and capers, if used, separately. The dark meat of the chicken is quite as good as the white meat but had better be made in a separate salad in the same way as the white meat, and used if more is wanted.
Italian Chicken Salad Take the white meat of two chickens and divide into long flakes: pile in the centre of a flat dish and arrange a border of lettuce around it. Arrange the whites of three hard boiled eggs cut into rings in a chain-like pattern, on the lettuce. Make a dressing with the yolks of the eggs, a mustard-spoonful of made mustard, about as much paprika or a little Cayenne, a small teaspoonful of fine sugar, four tablespoonfuls of oil and one of vinegar. Cook in a bowl on top of a kettle or use a double boiler, but do not allow it to boil. When cold pour over the chicken or serve in a separate dish.
Swiss Chicken Salad To the meat of one cooked chicken take one cucumber chopped, one teacup English walnuts chopped, one can French peas and two heads of celery cut small. Mayonnaise dressing.
Aspic with Chicken and Walnuts To every three cupfuls of clear, strong chicken consomme (which can be made from the water chickens are boiled in for salad) add a box of sparkling gelatine that has been soaked in a cupful of water, salt to taste and add a little Cayenne. Have celery cut rather fine, and one quarter the quantity of celery in the meat of English walnuts blanched, cut into pieces the same size of the celery and dressed with three tablespoonfuls of the jelly, two of oil, one teaspoonful of salt, two of vinegar and a little pepper. Have a double mould and when the jelly is hard fill the centre with the celery mixture leaving space enough for more liquid jelly so as to completely cover the celery. Place on ice, turn out and serve when very cold. Arrange with lettuce or white celery tops. Cold turkey with oysters and pieces of acid orange can be used for filling. Boiled chestnuts and pieces of boiled chicken liver can also be introduced if desired.
Turkey Salad Cold turkey makes an excellent salad, made in exactly the same way as chicken salad. In boiling use as little water as possible. The water from clams or oysters is excellent to boil a turkey in if diluted somewhat. Stewed or boiled chestnuts are good to mix with the salad. If cold roast turkey is to be used the meat is often too dry and should be moistened with oil and vinegar, three spoonfuls of oil and one of vinegar, and allowed to stand a little before mixing.
Turkey Salad with Chestnuts and Apples Take the dark meat from the side bones and second joints of a fair sized turkey, cut into half inch pieces and sprinkle lightly with salt. Have the meat from two dozen large or twice as many small American chestnuts, that have been boiled twenty minutes and then shelled, put in cold water to remove the inner brown skin. Cut into halves or quarters and salt lightly. Peel and slice four good sized crisp acid apples, when ready for the salad and mix with the chestnuts and turkey meat. Dress with French dressing or mayonnaise, the French being preferred. Lettuce makes a good garnish and some people like the addition of minced pickles.
Goose Salad A rich salad can be made from the remains of a roast goose in winter, or a young green goose in summer. Cut the meat into long thin strips, carefully remove all skin and fat In winter mix with an equal quantity of shredded celery and crisp acid apples and dress with mayonnaise. A sprinkle of sage is a desirable addition to the taste, or sage sandwiches can be served with the salad. The boiled liver can be salted and used for garnishing. Salt the meat if too fresh.
Partridge Salad—American Salads of game are not so popular in America as in foreign countries for we usually prefer our game broiled or roasted, and served with some simple and appropriately seasoned salad, instead of being made into an elaborate compound to astonish the palate. Yet when game is plenty new ways to serve it are desired and the remains of a game supper can often be utilized in a palatable yet economical manner.
Cut the meat from a cold roasted partridge into cubes about one-half inch in diameter leaving out all bones and skin. Add a minced cucumber pickle, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, pour over it a French dressing and let it stand an hour: then add the torn leaves of a head of lettuce or three heads of celery cut up, and serve. Mayonnaise dressing can be added if wanted.
Partridge Salad— English Cut a roasted partridge into eight or ten pieces and arrange in the centre of a platter on a bed of lettuce, celery, cress or any green that is in season. Make a thin flat border of butter about an inch from the edge of the platter. Have eight cold hard boiled eggs cut into pieces and arrange together the white and yellow pieces alternating. Prepare a dressing as follows. Beat together a tablespoonful of finely chopped shallots, onions or chives, one of fine sugar, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, tarragon or chervil, the raw yolk of one egg, quarter of an ounce of salt, and a little Cayenne pepper. Mix in, by degrees, four tablespoonfuls of oil and two of vinegar, or pepper sauce if preferred. Put on ice and when ready to serve whip with a gill of rich cream, pour over the partridge and serve.
Grouse Salad— English Roast the grouse and prepare a salmi sauce with the trimmings. Reduce it stiffly and mix in about one-third of aspic jelly. Cut the birds into convenient pieces to serve and dip each into the sauce giving each a thick coating. Put on ice to harden. Put a thick bed of shredded lettuce in a dish and upon it pile the pieces of jellied grouse. Garnish with quarters of hard boiled eggs and celery tops. Pour white mayonnaise over the pieces of bird.
Grouse Salad a la Soyer is prepared like American Partridge salad using grouse instead of partridge.
Pigeon Salad Both the wild and domestic birds can be made into good salads. Roast the pigeons and when cold pick the meat from the bones and cut into convenient pieces. Sprinkle a little salt over it and if dry let it soak in a marinade made in the proportions of one spoonful of vinegar to three of oil. When the salad is wanted, mix with lettuce or celery and serve with a mayonnaise dressing. A French dressing in which a few crushed leaves of summer savory, marjoram, thyme or other sweet herbs have been soaking will be preferred by many.
Quail Salad is made the same as pigeon salad, with lettuce. Let the meat which is usually dry stand in a marinade of French dressing before mixing.
Pea-Fowl Salad In the warmer portions of our country where peafowl are often plentiful the meat of a cold bird can be most acceptably served as a salad. The meat is usually dry and if a roasted fowl is used it should be put in a marinade which may be spiced and flavored with herbs if desired although too high seasoning disguises the peculiar flavor of the meat. Mix with lettuce or shredded celery to which is often added boiled chestnuts cut into small pieces, and raisins stoned and chopped. Dress with mayonnaise dressing, without mustard, garnish with small moulds or pieces of acid lemon, currant or cranberry jelly serving a piece to each guest. If the dish containing the salad is placed on another flat one in which are arranged some of the gay feathers of the bird, it can be made quite a feature in any entertainment.
Guinea-Fowl Salad Cut the meat of cold roasted birds into one-half inch pieces and mix with a little more than the same quantity of lettuce or celery and serve with mayonnaise dressing. Acid jellies, sections of sour oranges, capers etc., are excellent to serve with it.
A Polish Salad One quart cold game or poultry meat cut fine, moistened with French dressing and allowed to stand in a cool place for several hours. When wanted, shred a large head of lettuce into long narrow strips, place on a dish and pile the meat in the centre. Chop four hard boiled eggs fine and sprinkle over the whole. If too dry, more dressing may be added.
Supreme Salad This salad is also attributed to Poland, and is made by cutting cold roast game, roast goose or any other domestic fowl into small dice and mixing with an equal quantity of cold boiled potatoes cut up in the same way. These are arranged in layers, sprinkled with pepper, salt and finely minced chives and over all is poured a dressing made of equal parts of oil and vinegar with mustard to suit the taste. The salad is allowed to stand and absorb the dressing before being served.
Various Egg Salads
SOME people have an uncontrollable fondness for accompanying all kinds of salad with hard boiled eggs. This is a mistake as it gives sameness where variety is desirable. Eggs harmonize in taste with all salads made of fowls or fish, but seem out of place with meats, excepting when forming a part of the dressing. When eggs are abundant and fresh a good salad may be made with almost any kind of salad herb and eggs. Duck’s eggs and those of geese and any wild fowl are also good for salads. Those of sea fowl will require pungent seasonings. The use of the eggs of game birds is to be discouraged.
Plain Egg Salad Boil the eggs fifteen or twenty minutes and let them get perfectly cold before cutting. Slice them over crisp lettuce, sprinkle lightly with salt and serve with French dressing. Celery can be used instead of lettuce. Chopped cresses are a good addition and cottage or cream cheese a good accompaniment.
Egg Salad with Cabbage Boil six eggs hard. When cold cut in two evenly and take out the yolks. Mix these in a soup plate with a tablespoonful of melted butter, salt, a sprinkle of Cayenne pepper and half a teaspoonful of made mustard: form into little balls and fill the space in the whites from which the yolks were taken. Shred up as much white cabbage as is wanted and season with vinegar, pepper and salt Place in the bottom of a dish and arrange the parts of egg on it. Sprinkle with chopped parsley or cress and serve with boiled dressing or mayonnaise.
Floral Egg Salad Arrange a bed of lettuce leaves on a flat round dish, the stems toward the centre: cover the middle with mayonnaise dressing and place on this hard boiled eggs cut in quarters and arranged with their sides to each other like the petals of a sunflower, leaving space in the centre for a bunch of nasturtium flowers, white endive, cowslips etc. Serve a little more mayonnaise if the dish does not hold a sufficient quantity to go round.
Egg and Sardine Salad Cut into a salad bowl, in narrow strips, two good sized heads of celery, shredding the whites of three hard boiled eggs with them. Mash the yolks with the meat of four sardines, a little salt and pepper. Stir in cream enough to make a thick paste and thin with a little vinegar. Sprinkle salt over the celery and white of egg, with pepper if liked, toss about and pour the dressing over it.
Egg and Sweet Herb Salad Cut hard boiled eggs in halves, lengthwise. Sprinkle with salt, a little Cayenne pepper and add a few drops of oil and vinegar to each piece of yolk. Arrange on lettuce or cress and scatter chopped chives, chervil and tarragon over the whole.
Columbus Salad Have as many hard boiled eggs as are needed, cut them in halves, neatly remove the yolk and keep the whites in form so that they may be fitted together again. Mix the yolks with mayonnaise dressing, finely chopped boiled tongue, chicken or ham, adding a little lemon juice, butter, salt and pepper. Or, mix with minced anchovies or sardines seasoning with oil, vinegar, salt and pepper, onion or minced chives. Fill the hollows in the centre of the whites of the eggs with one of the mixtures, re-unite the halves making them look like whole eggs. Cut a little piece from one end of each egg so that it will stand on end, a la Columbus, and arrange them on endive or lettuce serving with any dressing liked. Any of the yolk mixture remaining may be made into small sandwiches to serve with the salad. If preferred, each white of egg may be filled with a round ball like the original yolk and arranged without uniting the halves.
Egg and Potato Salad Take hard boiled eggs and cold boiled potatoes, about one third potato, salt and mix with chopped capers and parsley or any herb that is liked and serve with mayonnaise dressing.
Water Lily Salad Cut hard boiled egg into pieces lengthwise and trim a little to resemble the petals of a pond lily. Large and small eggs can be used for the inner and outer rows. Arrange to resemble the flower, on a round leaf of lettuce, with the centre of the flower formed of the broken yolks of eggs. Place on a flat glass dish to simulate water, and trim lettuce into the shape of leaves forming the stems with the stalks of the coarser leaves trimmed close. Before cutting some of the eggs they can be colored a delicate pink by standing, while hot, in warm beet juice and water. Serve separately any kind of dressing.
Egg Salad with Cream Cheese (Salade au Nid) Take the yolks of hard boiled eggs and rub to a paste with an equal quantity of Neufchatel cream cheese. Season with salt, paprika or Cayenne pepper and make into egg shape balls. Arrange lettuce upon a dish and shred the whites of the egg as fine as possible, make a nest of them upon the lettuce and place the cheese balls in it. About ten minutes before helping pour over it a white mayonnaise dressing.
Egg and Celery Salad Arrange hard boiled eggs and cut celery into any pretty way fancied and dress with mayonnaise.
Egg and Parsley Salad Wash thoroughly and chop fine a sufficient quantity of young, tender and fresh parsley: spread on a platter and on this place hard boiled eggs cut in slices, salt and eat with French dressing.
PROBABLY more scraps of meat are wasted in the average household than is generally realized: not, of course, deliberately wasted, but because so little of some particular kind is left over from a meal it seems impossible to utilize it to advantage. Then too, there is the desire for a change from the inevitable roasted or boiled meats. There are numerous ways in which delicious salads may be made of several kinds of meat and give us at once a change and a delicious meal.
Lamb Salad Take cold roast lamb cut in small slices or half inch cubes, one pound of meat to two large heads of lettuce. Sprinkle with a dozen chopped capers. French or remoulade dressing. A little chopped mint may be added if the taste is relished.
Lamb’s Tongue Salad Allow one large cold boiled potato to three cooked and pickled lamb’s tongues. Add lettuce and endive if desired. Sprinkle with chopped parsley on the sliced potato and tongue and serve with French dressing.
Beef Salads There are various excellent ways in which to serve cold beef for a quick lunch that will extend a small quantity of good meat much farther than if served by itself. Number one is very popular as a “business lunch” in New York.
Number 1 Cut cold roast beef into small even slices but not so thin they will lose their shape, and serve with plain potato salad made with French dressing and onions.
Number 2 Cut the well done portions of cold roast beef, without the fat» into small pieces and marinade with enough plain dressing to flavor it: let it stand and when wanted mix with an equal quantity of endive or lettuce any mixed herbs wanted and more French dressing. Boiled vegetables, beets, potatoes or cauliflower may be used instead of lettuce.
Number 3 Shred a sweet Spanish pepper fine and mix with one large head of lettuce torn up and half a pound of cold beef cut into small pieces. French or mayonnaise dressing.
Number 4 Take boiled beef, cut into half inch cubes and marinade, using French dressing made with onion juice. Mix with an equal quantity of cold boiled potatoes cut the same way, more French dressing or mayonnaise and chopped parsley.
Number 5 (Salpicon de Carne) Take cold boiled beef cut into half inch cubes, boil and chop an onion and add it to the meat, or slice the onion raw, soak it in vinegar and then add to the meat with chopped olives, fresh marjoram and parsley. French dressing.
Number 6 For a salad of ordinary size press the vinegar from four tablespoonfuls of prepared horseradish, add a little salt and a few drops of onion juice and mix with six tablespoonfuls of thick cream whipped to a froth. Arrange the beef on lettuce leaves, pour over the dressing and serve at once. If the cream is not at hand mix a little water with the vinegar and scatter over the beef, letting it stand until absorbed and then s^*ve with mayonnaise dressing.
Beef to eat with Salad Take a round of fresh beef weighing ten or twelve pounds, lard it with strips of salt pork rolled in pepper and a very little ground clove, then place in a large frying pan and fry in lard on all sides and the ends. This prevents the juice from escaping. Cover the bottom of a large porcelain-lined pot with the coarse green leaves of celery that can be used for no other purpose. Put in the beef and stuff celery tops and leaves all around the sides and on top until the pot is full. Throw in a large spoonful of salt, fill with cold water and boil slowly until perfectly tender, then take out and press. To be eaten cold with salad. The boiling will take from three to five hours according to the tenderness of the beef: as no rule can be given the meat should be tried frequently with a fork: it should be perfectly tender but not so that it will fall apart. The beef can be cut into slices and mixed with the salad, but the more elegant way is to have it handsomely garnished with celery leaves on a platter, cut into slices and put on plates with the salad as it is served.
Tripe Salad Those who like tripe will enjoy it made in one of the following excellent forms. Cut into half inch pieces boiled or pickled tripe: if boiled squeeze over it the juice of a lemon. Sprinkle with chopped olives and parsley and dress with French dressing made with onion juice and a few leaves of sweet marjoram crushed and allowed to remain in the oil some time before mixing.
Another way is to take equal quantities of tripe, boiled potatoes and endive cut up into half inch pieces seasoning with French dressing and capers. Or, take one-third tripe with two-thirds sliced celery and mayonnaise dressing.
Veal Salad Veal is a favorite meat with many people. When used as a salad it is usually substituted for or mixed with chicken in chicken salad. Be careful to have the veal well and thoroughly done and carefully reject all pieces of gristle as well as brown or hard portions. One half each of cold veal and fine chopped white cabbage with mayonnaise or horseradish dressing is a favorite salad. Cut well done cold veal into half inch pieces and marinade or soak in oil and vinegar for two hours, then dress with three tablespoonfuls of oil, one of vinegar, one teaspoonful of French mustard, two of pounded anchovies or anchovy sauce. If not salt enough sprinkle fine salt over the veal and add chopped pickles and capers. Mustard leaves, parsley, etc. can be added if wanted.
Calf’s Head Salad No. 1 Take the tongue and one side of a cold boiled calf’s head, cut into pieces about three-eighths of an inch across and marinade in a French dressing to which horseradish can be added. See that all tough or unpleasant looking pieces are removed. Cut into small cubes two medium size cold boiled potatoes and about an equal quantity of cold boiled beets and carrots. If not salt enough sprinkle lightly with fine salt. Arrange on a dish with the meat in the centre, the vegetables forming a border. Sprinkle a cup of d of crisp watercress leaves over it. A little chicory, endive or Romaine lettuce will be a welcome addition. When ready mix all together with mayonnaise dressing.
Calf’s Head Salad No. 2 This salad is thought by many to be superior to all other salads. Use cold boiled calf’s head cut into half inch pieces using the tongue and a portion of the outside part, carefully rejecting all but the selected portions. Mix with an equal quantity, or a little more, of good lettuce and dress liberally with a rich mayonnaise dressing made with a glassful of sherry or Madeira wine, and garnished with olives as in turtle salad. This salad can also be made with equal quantities of calf’s head and cold boiled vegetables such as potatoes, beets, etc., and dressed with mayonnaise or French dressing. Minced chervil, chives, mint or any other sweet herbs can be sprinkled over it if a little of this sort of flavoring is relished.
Salad of young Pigs Lean fresh pork that is tender and white when roasted is considered better than veal as a substitute for chicken in salad. It is improved if slightly corned and the piece known as “spare ribs” is best to use. Roast and put in a cold place for twenty-four hours and then cut into half inch pieces or a little smaller, rejecting all brown, fat or tough pieces. Mix with an equal quantity sliced celery and serve with mayonnaise dressing as with chicken salad. If preferred the meat of any part of a very young pig may be cut into half inch pieces and mixed with equal quantities of sliced celery and fresh crisp acid apples and mayonnaise dressing. A little sage or sweet marjoram can be used to flavor the dressing and decorations of sliced pickled beets or rounds of firm cranberry jelly. Roast apples can be served with it. Do not marinade the meat as with dry meats.
Sweet-bread Salad Place the sweet-breads in scalding salted water for about ten minutes tiien put in ice water to whiten them and let remain until thoroughly chilled. Boil for ten or fifteen minutes and then drain removing any veins or unsightly portions and put on ice to harden. When ready cut into pieces of convenient size for eating and arrange in a salad bowl with an equal quantity of crisp lettuce or celery and mayonnaise dressing.
Ham Salad Take equal quantities of cold boiled ham cut into dice the size of peas allowing part of the fat to remain, and sliced celery or shredded lettuce. Serve with boiled dressing or any other kind preferred. See corned beef salad.
Liver Salad Baked or broiled lamb or calf liver or what is even more delicate, the boiled liver of fowls, cut into half inch pieces and sprinkled with salt can be served with a little more than the same quantity of lettuce or sliced celery and remoulade dressing. Chopped mustard leaves or cress can be scattered over it.
Corned Beef Salad Corned beef for salad must be tender and free from gristle and too much fat. It may be used in vegetable salads or in place of fresh beef in beef salads. The old fashioned corned beef salad is made by cutting the beef into strips about an inch long and a quarter of an inch wide and sprinkling with grated horseradish or horseradish vinegar. To about one pound of beef add a large boiled potato and one beet, cut into dice or slices, and dress the whole with French dressing. Endive is a good addition. A good modern way is to slice the beef as thin as possible, using a very sluup thin bladed knife and lay these curls of meat on leaves of lettuce of about the same size, and season delicately with any dressing, mayonnaise preferred. Chopped cresses or any herb may be used in place of the other dressings. Roll the leaves of lettuce up and if necessary tie with a string to keep them in shape. They are to be taken in the hand and eaten as are sandwiches. They are very decorative piled on a plate or small platter. Have a firm dressing and do not put on too much. Cold ham, jerked beef or venison can be used in the same way.
Hamburg Salad Divide a plain potato or other vegetable salad, dressed with plenty of French dressing in the usual way. Put half of the vegetable salad in the bottom of a salad bowl and on that put half a pound or more according to size salad wished, of tender raw beef that has been chopped fine and highly seasoned with salt, onion juice, Cayenne pepper or Tabasco sauce. Put the rest of the vegetable salad on the beef and just before serving mix all together.
Army Salad Shred about a quarter of a medium size head of cabbage and sprinkle well with salt, let it stand and when the salad is wanted mix with about a pint or a little more of cold boiled potatoes sliced and sprinkle with a little vinegar (if a sour dressing is used this may be omitted) and a pound of cold boiled ham cut into small dice shaped pieces. Add three or four small pickled onions minced very fine, and sprinkle lightly with red or black pepper according to taste. Hard boiled eggs may be mixed with it or arranged on top. Mix lightly just before serving, with any good salad dressing available.
Beef Steak Salad If you have a good piece of cold broiled steak that is rare and tender cut it into thin slices about three-fourth of an inch long, carefully discarding all hard portions, and mix in a salad bowl with an equal quantity of water or garden cress and French dressing made with few drops of onion juice. The oil may be omitted in whole or in part if the steak was well buttered while hot, as it should have been, and then put in an ice chest to become cold and firm. Lettuce or celery can be added if desired. If the steak is well done or somewhat dry it can be served with potato salad as in roast beef salad using a more liberal quantity of dressing than is required with green herbs. Green peas are an addition to this salad that is much liked. It is always better to have the steak well buttered and seasoned with salt and pepper while still hot and then put in a cold place to harden. Cold French fried potatoes or chips are good to serve with it if potatoes do not form a part of the salad. This is a good supper salad for hot weather.
Turtle Salad Cold boiled turtle or turtle stock make a rich salad which should not be served, however, with a meal in which turtle is served in other ways. Have equal quantities of the different kinds of meat cut into half inch pieces. Salt the meat well and sprinkle with lemon juice if it is dry and serve with plenty of crisp lettuce, shredded olives and a rich mayonnaise dressing made with turtle eggs, if you have them, adding a wine glassful of sherry wine or Madeira. The wine may be sprinkled over the meat, unless the dressing is thick and requires thinning. The turtle eggs should be well boiled but, as they will not turn hard, only the yolks had best be used. Hard boiled fowl’s eggs or those of wild birds can be used to decorate the salad. Pickled limes are good to serve with this salad.
Rabbit Salad The meat of wild or tame rabbits can be used. Cut the meat of two roasted rabbits into one-half inch pieces, cool with a plain dressing and let it stand for several hours. A few slices of onion, bruised leaves of thyme, tarragon, tender buds of black birch or any field herb to give a wild flavor, can be added. When ready for the salad, remove the herbs etc., carefully from the meat, mix in a bowl with the heads of lettuce torn into small pieces and serve with mayonnaise dressing into which a large teaspoonful of prepared French mustard has been well beaten. Watercresses are a nice garnish.
Venison Salad Venison is too dry to make a really fine salad but cold venison is good served with potato salad in any of the ways cold beef is relished. Take a pound of cold venison and cut into half inch cubes. Pour over it a French dressing and let it stand for an hour or two and then mix with lettuce or endive, the latter preferred. A few cresses, dandelions, chives or any slightly bitter herbs that are relished, can be added. Put on more dressing, if too dry, and serve.
More excerpts to come from Maximilian De Loup’s 1899 masterpiece: The American Salad Book, “The most complete and useful collection of salad recipes ever brought together.”
This goldmine of salad wisdom was mined by Wolfram Alderson, Salad Lover and Advisor to EatRx and CEO of the Hypoglycemia Support Foundation.